In June 2016, the Health and Safety Executive published a First Aid Bulletin which made amendments to the workplace First Aid courses. The major change to these courses was the mandatory teaching of the use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) to be commenced with effect from January the 1st 2017.
As well as this important development for workplace First Aid courses, the Department for Education (DfE) will shortly be publishing new syllabi for Paediatric First Aid courses; this will be the first time that the Government Department responsible for Early Years will have published syllabi for these courses. In recent months, The First Aid Awarding Organisations’ Forum has been liaising with the DfE to write new units for regulated Paediatric qualifications. As such these have been approved to meet the new, soon to be released syllabi and have come into effect, officially, from January 1st 2017.
We have therefore introduced AED teaching into all of our First Aid courses as standard with the exception of First Aid for Parents and First Aid for Brownies.
We thought we would take this opportunity to explore the purpose of an AED and how to safely use one when trying to save a life.
Did you know?…
If a defibrillator is used and effective Cardio-
is performed within 3-
survival increase from
6% to 74%.
What is an Automated External Defibrillator?
An Automated External Defibrillator, also known as an AED or defib, is a portable device that checks the heart rhythm of a casualty and can send an electric shock through the casualty’s heart to try to restore a normal rhythm.
What is an AED used for?
An AED is used to treat sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). SCA is a condition where a heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating or beating in a normal rhythm.
A cause of SCA is Ventricular Fibrillation (v-
When discussing ventricular defibrillation on our courses, we often describe the quivering of the lower chambers of the heart as a plate of jelly, and this helps to demonstrate how this is not good for the casualty’s body and heart.
What does the AED do?
The electric shock that the AED delivers to the heart, stuns the heart to try to stop the abnormal rhythm that the heart is currently suffering from.
The AED cannot shock a flatlining or totally stopped heart, nor can it shock a heart which is in a normal working rhythm, in these circumstances the AED will advise the First Aider continues with CPR if it is needed and will then recheck the heart rhythm after approximately 2 minutes.
How do I know if there is a Public Access Defibrillator (PAD) near me?
Public Access Defibrillators are identified by a sign that the Resuscitation Council (UK) have designed. The sign is closely aligned to the First Aid sign which is widely recognised across the United Kingdom. The AED standard sign is available here. In 2008, ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation) designed a universal AED sign, which has 3 subtle differences to the Resuscitation Council (UK) version, as follows:
There is a white cross in the top right corner.
There is an arrowhead at the bottom of the flash.
The word AED is used in place of defibrillator.
You can view this version of the sign here, although the Resuscitation Council (UK) agrees that it meets legal guidelines, but feels that their design meets the UK needs better. Also, it is not clear how many other countries will endorse the ILCOR version.
How safe is an Automated External Defibrillator to use?
Modern AEDs are very reliable and will not allow a shock to be given to a casualty unless it is absolutely necessary. It is highly unlikely that an AED will cause any harm to a sudden cardiac arrest casualty nor will it cause any harm to a First Aider. There is no need for any specific training to be given as the machine will talk you through the process, although it is a good idea to have the knowledge of how they work.
Are there any safety advice guidelines?
There are some considerations to be aware of as follows:
Casualty’s Wet Chest
Should the casualty have a wet chest, for example they have been profusely sweating or swimming, the chest should be dried prior to the AED pads being applied to the chest, ensuring that the pads adhere to the chest properly. Also, ensure that you have dried the area of the chest between the pads to prevent the electricity from ‘arcing’ across the chest.
Excessive Chest Hair
A particularly hairy chest will prevent the AED pads from adhering effectively to the casualty’s chest as well as interfering with the electrical contact. Only shave a chest if the casualty has excessive chest hair and even then only spend the minimal amount of time as possible to do this. However, do not delay defibrillation if there is no razor available, although there should be one in the Defibrillator pack.
Care should be taken to ensure that any jewellery, for example a necklace, is not placed under the defibrillator pads. If this should happen the electric shock that is supposed to go through the heart, will actually conduct through the jewellery and burn the casualty. You do not need to remove body piercings as long as you do not place the pads over these.
Some casualties may be wearing a patch which delivers medication to them. This could be a nicotine patch, or in the case of some heart patients a ‘Glyceryl Tri-
Usually any implanted devices, for example a pacemaker or defibrillator, are implanted on the left hand-
Highly flammable environments
The AED could potentially create a spark when delivering the shock to the casualty’s heart. With this in mind the AED should not be used in a highly flammable atmosphere, for example in the presence of petrol fumes.
A defibrillator should not be used when the casualty is having a seizure, and the First Aider should ensure that any vehicle engines and/or vibrating machines are switched off wherever possible.
Do NOT delay defibrillation because the casualty is laid on a wet surface or something that is metal, as long as the chest is dry it is safe to deliver the shock.
How do we use a Defibrillator?
So, we have spent a while discussing how the AED works and the safety considerations, we should conclude this blog with the instructions of how to use.
In fear of repeating ourselves, DO NOT delay in using the defibrillator if there is one available, however should you be alone or not have access to a Defibrillator, you should commence CPR immediately.
When the Defib arrives:
Switch on the defibrillator immediately and follow the voice prompts.
Attach the leads to the AED if necessary.
Attach the pads to the casualty’s bare chest, having assessed whether the chest needs to be dried and/or shaved due to excessive hair, and observing for signs of jewellery, medication patches and/or implanted devices as stated above.
Peel the backing off one pad at a time and place, where indicated, firmly onto the chest:
Place one pad below the casualty’s right collarbone
Place the other pad around the casualty’s left side over the lower ribs.
DO NOT remove the pads if the diagram shows you have laid them the wrong way round as the AED will still work.
While the AED analyses the heart rhythm – stop CPR and ensure that no one touches the casualty.
If a shock is indicated, deliver shock:
Ensure that no one touches the casualty.
Push the shock button as directed, if you have a fully automated defibrillator, it will deliver the shock automatically.
Immediately restart CPR at a ratio of:
30 Chest Compressions (at a rate of 120 per minute) to
2 Rescue Breaths.
Continue as directed by the defibrillator voice commands.
If a shock is NOT indicated, continue CPR:
Immediately restart CPR at a ratio of:
30 Chest Compressions (at a rate of 120 per minute) to
2 Rescue Breaths.
Continue as directed by the defibrillator voice commands.
N.B. if you are dealing with a child, pay particular attention to the defibrillator pads that you have.
Paediatric Specific Defibrillator Pads:
Peel the backing off one pad at a time and place, where indicated, firmly onto the chest:
Place one pad in the centre of the child’s chest
Place the other pad in the centre of the child’s back.
However, they may also be designed to use as per the adult pads. If using adult pads you should use them as per the description above.
For more information on the use of AEDs, why not book a First Aid course where we will take you through the use of them and you will get the opportunity to try using one on a CPR manikin.
The Early Years curriculum has gone through many changes over recent years. As the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) has again gone through a revision we
thought that it would be an idea to take you through the history of the curriculum as it is today and the amendments that have been made to come into effect on the 3rd April 2017.
This blog focuses on the Early Years Curricula in England, as the other 3 countries in the United Kingdom all have individual curricula different from the Early Years Foundation Stage, as follows:
Northern Ireland Foundation Stage (4 to 6 years)
Scotland Curriculum for Excellence
Wales Foundation Phase.
The Early Years curriculum in England has gone through many changes and reviews over the years. If we go back to 2000 we find ourselves at the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage that comes from the National Childcare Strategy of 1998. This strategy was the vision of the Labour Government. The National Childcare Strategy was designed to break down the division between ‘Care’ and ‘Education’ for children and families. The strategy was set out in an historic Green Paper entitled ‘Meeting the Childcare Challenge’; the aim of the Green Paper was to provide high-
Raising the quality of care
Making childcare more affordable
Making childcare more accessible by increasing places and improving information.
The Curriculum Guidance for Foundation Stage (QCA/DfEE 2000) was aimed at children aged between 3 years and 5 years old and was introduced in September 2000. The Foundation Stage set out 6 areas of learning which form the basis of the curriculum. These areas of learning are as follows:
Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Communication, Language and Literacy Development
Knowledge and Understanding of the World
Each of these areas had a related set of Early Learning Goals which were designed to support the Early Years Practitioners to fully meet the vast needs of children, so that most will achieve and, where appropriate, exceed the early learning goals by the end of the Foundation Stage. Most Nurseries and Preschools used the Stepping Stones to track and record the child’s development towards the Early Learning Goals.
In 2002, The Labour Government passed the Education Act 2002, which extended the National Curriculum to include the Foundation Stage. It also introduced the Foundation Stage profile which replaced other baseline assessment schemes. The Foundation Stage consisted of 13 summary scales covering the 6 areas of learning. Within the act the Foundation Stage was defined as the time between the child’s third birthday and the time they first receive primary education, other than nursery education.
At this stage in time, there was still no guidance for children under the age of 3 years old. The Department for Education and Skills developed the Birth to Three Matters Framework in 2002 in order to try to address this imbalance. The stated aim of the Framework was:
‘to provide support, information, guidance and challenge for all those with
responsibility for the care and education of babies and
children from birth to three years.
(Birth to Three Matters, DfES 2002)
The Birth to Three Matters Framework was divided into 4 aspects as follows:
A Strong Child
A Skilful Communicator
A Competent Learner
A Healthy Child.
As you can see from the 2 different sets of learning areas, they are very different and don’t match, this complicates things for early years staff who were caring for children covering 0 – 5 years old. It was complicated because staff would have to learn 2 different sets of paperwork and documents in order to cover the children’s development throughout their early years.
Not only did early years staff at this point in time have to grapple with 2 early years curricula and frameworks, they also had to have regard for the National Standards for Under 8s. There were several versions of this document depending on which type of care providers were providing for children. A few examples are:
Red Book Full Day Care
Blue Book Childminding
Green Book Crèches
Purple Book Sessional Day Care
Orange Book Out Of School Care.
The National Standards represented a baseline that no provider could fall below. It detailed 14 National Standards, each describing a particular quality outcome, supported by a set of criteria as to how this standard could be achieved.
Around this point in time, there were several pieces of research that had an impact on early years as well as the aftermath of the death of Victoria Climbié and the advent of the Every Child Matters Green paper. We will look at how the Every Child Matters affected the curricula shortly, but first let’s discuss The Effective Provision of Pre-
EPPE was the first longitudinal study of a national sample of young children’s development (intellectual and social/behavioural) between the ages of 3 and 7 years old in Europe. The research project investigated a range of influences on children’s development, these included home learning environment, parental employment and the quality of the child’s preschool setting. These aims were to measure the effectiveness of preschool on a wide range of children of various backgrounds and to then identify which characteristics of preschools made them effective. The research criteria for effectiveness included identifying the benefits of attending different types of preschools and how quickly these fade over time. The report concluded that the quality was higher where settings integrated care and education aspects, and that the benefits remained deep into Key Stage 1 at school.
REPEY was commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills in 2002 and was based on the dataset of EPPE. It was set up in particular to study the pedagogical (the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept) strategies or instructional techniques which encourage and enable learning to take place. This included the community and home learning environment as well as that of the setting’s learning environment. The research found that there were particular concerns around children’s transitions, and that if a setting had continuity of learning between the setting and the home the cognitive outcomes of the child were far better than in situations where this was not the case.
Both EPPE and REPEY have a clear place within the modern day Early Years Foundation Stage as we will explore shortly.
Around the same time as these 2 pieces of research were being conducted and published, there was another channel leading us towards the modern day EYFS; this of course is the sad and untimely death of 8 year old, Victoria Climbié. Following on from her death, Lord Laming published his inquiry into the events that led up to Victoria’s death and he laid out changes that should be made. The Labour Government at the time agreed with his recommendations and formulated the Every Child Matters framework. The document itself brought a raft of changes to the whole of the child sector of England and Wales, as well as 5 outcomes for children:
Enjoying and Achieving
Make a Positive Contribution.
These 5 outcomes are often remembered by the acronym SHEEP (Safe, Healthy, Enjoying, Economic, Positive). The heart of the Every Child Matters Framework is the universal child, and places the child at the centre of decisions and working towards ensuring that the children can maximise their potential and are protected.
In 2006, the Government reformed early years regulation and inspection arrangements. It introduced the Early Years Foundation Stage into the statute books, to be brought in to effect in 2008.
When the Early Years Foundation Stage was released and became statutory in September 2008, it was a groundbreaking document and curriculum which for the first time covered all early years’ settings from 0 to 5 years of age. It had taken the best parts of the Foundation Stage and the Birth to Three Matters. On release the EYFS pack contained:
Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage
Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage
Principles into Practice cards
The Statutory Framework document brought together all of the requirements of the National Day Care Standards by renaming them the Welfare Requirements. While the Principles into Practice Cards, Poster and CD ROM were all adapted from the concept in the Birth to Three Matters Framework. These documents were really helpful to early years’ staff to familiarise themselves with the new document. The Principles into Practice cards also made reference to the Every Child Matters outcomes, by highlighting which outcome the aspect of the curriculum met. We have included them on our Legislation page for guidance only as they may no longer meet the requirements of the EYFS.
Like the Foundation Stage before it, The Early Years Foundation Stage has kept the Early Learning Goals, to aim to achieve by the end of the Foundation Stage (Reception Class). The Practice Guidance had a really useful grid at the back of the document to help practitioners to aid children to maximise their potential and reach their goals.
So what are the influences and theories that have inspired this new curriculum?
We have looked at early years’ theorists below who have had an impact on the Early Years Foundation Stage and in bold have highlighted where their key belief is an important part of the EYFS.
Friedrich Frobel was a childcare theorist who was hundreds of years ahead of his time. Frobel suggested that the early years are the most important time in a child’s life. He also recognised the importance of educational toys and activities. He also believed that the role of the adult is to observe the children, and he understood the support children need in the early years is different to the support that they need in later years .
Charlotte Mason is famous for regarding education as essential for all children regardless of their class. She equally believed that it was important to share information with the parents about their children’s educational needs. Mason believes that parents are a key important part of their child’s education.
Dr Maria Montessori’s method of caring for children is based on her theory of childcare and the work she did in asylums observing children. Montessori believes that children’s development depended on the adults around them and the environment that they are in. Modern day Montessori settings expect the adults to observe the children at all times, but they must not interfere with the child’s work.
Piaget is one of the most famous childhood theorists. He believed that there was a pattern in the way that children identified right from wrong. This made him curious about how children formulated their knowledge and understanding of the world. However some people have questioned Piaget and his theories because they are based on his own children with no consideration of social interaction, learning and context.
Vygotsky believes that learning is a social and contextual process. He is a believer that observations are more important than test scores, he believes that ‘teachers’ should be vigilant observers enabling them to better support children’s learning and development.
Susan Isaacs is a more modern day theorist who believes in more naturalistic observations. These observations should be conducted as the children learn through play without hindrance or interference from other people. According to Isaacs, children should be free to choose their activities, while the adult around them observes, supports and scaffolds the children’s learning.
Malaguzzi developed his pedagogical approach in the village of Reggio Emilia, Italy after World War II. Malaguzzi believed that children should be free to express themselves in as many ways as they can, including arts and crafts, drama, music etc.
Margaret Carr is best known for her work in developing learning stories. Carr believes that observations should be based on credit, whereby what the child can do and not what they can’t do is noted. She also believes that the observations should be part of a structure, in order for adults to make connections and assess where children are in their learning dispositions and/ or their attitude to learning.
Tina Bruce believes that children’s observations can be used to inform themes and the planning of the children. She also believes that adults should use observations as a variety of ‘lenses through which to tune into and understand the child’s development and learning (Bruce, 2005).
EPPE and REPEY have been reflected into the EYFS as follows:
The distinct combination of care and education
Key Person being statutory
One curriculum from 0 – 5 as opposed to the old system
One curriculum should improve cognitive development
‘Sustained and Shared thinking’ incorporated into the Development Matters.
Since its introduction in 2008, the EYFS has gone through several changes to keep it up to date with current best practice and changes necessary to continue to safeguard and educate children. Education of children has been reviewed several times as well.
One such review was carried out by Dame Claire Tickell entitled Early Years: Foundations for life, health and learning, which was published on the 29th March 2011. The review was based on evidence gained from staff and adults working in the early years. Dame Claire found that the EYFS was a well-
The 6 areas of learning should be replaced by 7 areas:
3 Prime Areas:
Communication and Language Development
Personal, Social and Emotional Development
4 other areas:
Expressive Arts and Design
Understanding the World.
The 69 Learning Goals should be reduced to 17.
The EYFS Profile to be amended to take into account the change in Learning Goals.
The EYFS Profile should be simpler to assess the child, and she suggested 3 scales:
A graduate led workforce should continue to be the aspiration of the Government.
Entry Qualifications to Early Years should be of a high standard consistent with the NNEB qualification.
EYFS 2008 to 2012 Version
The 2008 framework was updated in April 2012. The changes were based on the recommendations from Dame Claire Tickell as discussed above. This version of the EYFS was the first to be download only, the Government only updated the Statutory Guidance Framework document, and not the other supporting documents, however other agencies produced these as follows:
Early Education published Development Matters.
National Children’s Bureau published A Know How Guide: The EYFS Progress Check at Age 2.
4Children published A Parent’s Guide to the EYFS.
The amendments made were designed to:
Reduce paperwork and bureaucracy
Strengthen partnerships between parents and practitioners
Focus on the 3 Prime Areas
Simplify assessment at age 5
Introduce early intervention.
The 2012 EYFS made the following amendments to the 2008 Framework:
A stronger emphasis in the framework on safeguarding children:
The Welfare Requirements became the Safeguarding and Welfare Requirements
Included adult behaviour indicators
Policies should now include reference to cameras and mobile telephones
DBS Checks on managers are now providers’ responsibility not Ofsted’s.
Staff qualifications, training, support and skills was strengthened.
EYFS training for childminders MUST be completed before registering with Ofsted.
There was a clarification of the child: staff ratio exceptions.
Providers are now free to decide if a Risk Assessment needs to be recorded in writing or not.
As per the recommendations of Dame Claire, 6 areas of learning became 7.
69 Early Learning Goals became 17, with a simplified assessment scale at the end of the stage.
The introduction of the Progress Check at age 2, to be shared with parents and included in the child’s red book.
The balance between adult and child led activities was clarified.
Clearer focus on the reasonable steps practitioners should take regarding English as an additional language.
Wrap around care now did not need to meet the framework in full.
The 2012 EYFS made a whole raft of changes to what was already a well-
Early Years Outcomes
In September 2013, the Department of Education released a non-
Early Years Outcomes shows a child’s typical development for their age but practitioners need to be aware and remember that all children develop at their own rate in their own time.
EYFS 2012 to 2014
The 2014 version of the EYFS was introduced and became statutory on the 1st September 2014. The revision came about following the Government’s response to the consultation on the regulation of Childcare. The idea of the revision is to capture new regulations and remove requirements which are stipulated in other statutory documents or that are now deemed as unnecessary.
The amendments included:
There was a lot of rewording of the document to include the phrase Childminding Agencies.
A summary page was added to the document for the first time.
The Progress Check had wording changed to include integrated working.
3.13 of the Safeguarding and Welfare Requirements was clarified further under section 35 of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006.
Further clarification was made regarding disqualification of working with children.
3.18 made further changes to include additional advice on staff taking appropriate training and development opportunities.
‘Providers should ensure that regular staff appraisals are carried out’ was removed.
Childminding training to be Local Authority approved requirement was removed.
Local Authority approved First Aid training requirement was removed.
Further clarification on Childminder Assistants being left in sole charge of children must hold a Paediatric First Aid qualification.
The operating hours were removed from the framework as were providers operating outside of 8am and 4pm.
Early Years Teacher Status was included to incorporate the new qualification.
3.36 removed the wording except for children in Reception classes.
3.38 changed wording to incorporate different legislation.
3.40 added a new section, Before/After School care and holiday provision
3.41 included wording to define ‘a young child’.
Removal of the requirement for settings to have and implement a behaviour management policy and procedures.
Removal of the requirement to have a named behaviour management practitioner in every setting.
Wording added, ‘providers are responsible for managing behaviour in a manageable way’.
3.54 changed wording relating to overall floor space, age of children and fire safety.
3.54 removed the requirement to have a health and safety policy.
3.55 removed the requirement for a no smoking policy.
3.55 changed the wording relating to smoking on the childcare premises.
3.56 added wording for the settings to follow their legal responsibilities under The Equality Act 2010.
Removal of the requirement for provision for space for children who wish to relax, play quietly or sleep.
Risk assessment policy was removed.
The number of suggested toilets and wash basins were removed.
Providers need to be able to demonstrate how they manage risks, and not expose staff to unnecessary risk.
3.65 removed the requirement for parent’s permission for children to partake in outings.
Changes to SENCO arrangements, ‘Maintained nursery schools must identify a member of staff to act as SENCO and other providers (in group provision) are expected to identify a SENCO’.
As you can see the 2014 framework made plenty of changes that built on and attempted to slimline what was already a well-
This then brings us right up to date, or at least it would except for the fact that the Department of Education has released, on March the 3rd this year, a revised EYFS that comes into effect on April the 3rd 2017.
EYFS 2014 to 2017
During the Childcare Expo in London, the parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Women, Equalities and Early Years, Caroline Dinenage MP launched the long-
The main aims of the EYFS 2017 are to incorporate new Level 3 qualification requirements and First Aid regulations. On the same day the Early Years Workforce strategy was launched and the rule that Level 3 Early Years Educators must have English and Maths GCSEs at grade C or above.
The changes in brief are:
Changes to the Level 3 Requirements
All new staff into Early Years MUST have Emergency Paediatric First Aid
References to the Prevent Duty guidance added
Inclusion of identifying risks of FGM.
Let’s look at these in more detail:
Changes to the Level 3 Requirements
The Early Years Foundation Stage now states:
‘To count in the ratios at Level 3, staff holding an Early Years Educator
qualification must also have achieved a suitable Level 2 qualification in
English and Maths as defined by the Department for Education on the Early Years
Qualifications List published on GOV.UK.’
This has removed the requirement for Early Years Educators to have a GCSE grade C or above in English and Maths.
All new staff into Early Years MUST have Emergency Paediatric First Aid
Section 3.25 of the Early Years Foundation Stage states:
‘All newly qualified entrants to the early years workforce who have
completed a Level 2 and/or Level 3 qualification on or after 30 June 2016,
must also have either a full PFA or an emergency PFA certificate within
three months of starting work in order to be included in the required
staff: child ratios at Level 2 or Level 3 in an early years’ setting.’
This is expected to add an additional 15,000 qualified First Aiders to the Early Years Workforce. This is a massive improvement to the number of Paediatric First Aiders and a major step forward to ensuring the safety of children in early years’ settings. We believe that this is an excellent addition to the EYFS although we were expecting this to be the case from September.
A footnote to this requirement states that any newly qualified entrants who started work between the 30th June 2016 and 2nd April 2017 will have until 2nd July 2017 to achieve their First Aid qualification in order to be included in their setting’s staff ratios.
References to the Prevent Duty guidance added
For the first time the EYFS makes reference to the Prevent Duty. Section 3.7 says that providers must have regard to the Prevent Duty Guidance for England and Wales 2015, footnote 15 adds that the 2015 Counter Terrorism and Security Act places a duty on early years’ settings ‘to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism’.
Inclusion of identifying risks of FGM
Section 3.6 of the Early Years Foundation Stage 2017 states:
‘Providers must train all staff to understand their safeguarding
policy and procedures, and ensure that all
staff have up-
Training made available may include…
any reasons to suspect neglect or abuse outside the setting,
for example in the child’s home or that a girl may
have been subjected to (or is at risk of) female genital mutilation.’
In the footnotes of this requirement the EYFS makes reference to the FGM guidelines, for your ease we have included a link in this blog below:
This blog brings you right up to date with the history of the Early Years curriculum, including the theorists that have impacted on the EYFS, as well as taking you through the changes of the EYFS to date. Obviously our main aim of this blog was to take you through the 2017 changes.
To help you in your planning for the new framework we have included a link to the new document below:
We have also included a link to the Early Years Workforce Strategy as mentioned earlier in the blog:
We hope that this blog has been helpful and look forward to reading yo
‘It’s only asthma!’
This is something we hear a lot when it comes to the subject of asthma. During this blog we will look at why this tiny phrase is so damaging in the wider scheme of things.
Asthma is a condition that affects a lot of people in the UK however many people do not take asthma as seriously as they should, every year asthma causes more deaths than people realise.
Did you know?....
5,400,000 people in the UK are being treated for asthma
1,100,00 children (1 in 11)
4,300,00 adults (1 in 12)
On average there are 3 children with asthma in every classroom
Every 20 minutes a child is admitted to hospital in the UK due to asthma
3 people die in the UK every day because of asthma.
According to Asthma UK the definition of asthma varies depending on their experience with the condition. The ‘textbook’ definition of asthma is:
‘A condition that affects the airways –
the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs.’
Asthma UK believes this is a definition that fits broadly, as your experience will affect how you feel about and see the condition. They say that, in particular, it will mean different things to different people in the following situations:
Does it run in the family?
Does your child have asthma?
Has your child been recently diagnosed?
The first time you witness someone in an attack.
Regardless of what it means to you, it is important that you understand how it affects sufferers and particularly the person who you are close to that suffers from this illness.
What Triggers an Asthma Attack?
Asthma is triggered by a whole range of triggers which includes, but is not limited to:
o Animals and pets
o Colds and flu
o Female hormones
o House dust mites
o Moulds and fungi
o Indoor environment
o Recreational drugs
o Smoking and second hand smoke
o Stress and anxiety
What does an Asthma Attack look like?
During an asthma attack the muscles around the airways tighten, and the lining of the airways swells, both therefore making it harder to get the air in and out of the lungs. The third part of the effects on the airway is that mucus may form inside the airway and therefore make it even harder to get air in and out. On occasion, it can take a few days for these to build up and take effect on the casualty, or it can occur very rapidly.
These internal symptoms show themselves in the following ways:
Tight chest or pain
Breathless (taking breaths mid-
Pale, clammy skin
Cyanosis (Blueing of the lips and fingertips)
Use of muscles in the neck and upper chest.
Asthma UK highlights how serious this condition is by stating that people shouldn’t feel that they are making a fuss by seeking help with an asthma attack or on behalf of an asthma sufferer, and says help should be sought at any time of the day or night.
How can I help someone having an Asthma Attack?
When someone is having, an asthma attack it is important the first-
Although some asthma sufferers will have an individual action plan arranged by their doctor the following advice works in an emergency situation.
1. Try to keep the casualty calm. (If a child, encourage them to sing their favourite song with you. Do not worry that it is not in tune, time or rhythm.)
2. Sit the casualty straight up – Do not lie them down (you could sit them on a chair the wrong way around so they are facing the back of the chair.
3. Encourage the casualty to take their RELIEVER inhaler, (usually blue, and usually 2 puffs).
4. If worried, or they are not getting better even after 10 puffs of their inhaler dial 999/112 for an ambulance.
5. While awaiting the arrival of the ambulance, keep the casualty and yourself calm.
For your guidance, we have included links to videos that will show you how to correctly use an inhaler; we thank Asthma UK for these:
How to use a metered dosage inhaler
How to use an easi-
How to use an accuhaler
How to use a turbohaler
How to use a small volume spacer
How to use a spacer with a child
We hope that you have enjoyed reading this blog on asthma. The most important thing to remember is to stay calm and not to worry about making a fuss about someone’s asthma, you might just save their life.
As yet another vote approaches, we are yet again being asked to go to the polls to elect our next Prime Minister for the next 5 years. This blog is not intended to be political in terms of support for either party or candidate. However we thought we would explore what the different parties of the UK are pledging will happen over the next 5 years in their manifestos, should they win, across our specialisms.
As you are aware there are many political parties in the UK vying for your vote. With all of them releasing manifestos, we thought we would make it easy for you to consider their pledges, as we appreciate how time consuming it is for us all to read such large documents.
We thought long and hard as to which order to consider the manifestos and have decided to ensure we remain impartial, we would go in order of the current number of seats the parties hold in the House of Commons:
On the 18th May 2017, the Conservatives were the last of the ‘big three’ UK wide political parties to launch their manifestos to set out their proposals for the next 5 years as the party in Government. So, what are their promises for the next 5 years.
Interestingly, looking at the Conservatives’ manifesto, they seem to not deem the Early Years as education, as their Early Years proposals are separate from their schools’ proposals. However, they do say in bold lettering ‘Britain should be the best country in the world for children’ a phrase that we at The Training Fox absolutely believe in.
The manifesto states that high quality childcare is important to the working parents as well as the children themselves. They pledge to introduce this year 30 hours of free child care to children aged 3 and 4 years old of working parents who find it difficult to manage the costs of childcare. They say that they are going to look at best practice across Europe and the world as well as assess what more is needed in the UK. They say that they will immediately institute a capital fund for primary schools to set up nursery provision where they currently don’t have provision. Going forward, they will presume that all new primary schools should include a nursery.
On the subject of children’s mental health, the Conservatives are pledging to introduce mental health first aid training for teachers in primary and secondary schools by the end of the Parliament.
Placing a child under the oversight of social services, according to the Conservative manifesto, is amongst the most serious duty the state can discharge. This is of course totally the case. The Conservatives are going to demand that all Local Authorities be commissioners of the highest quality family support and child protection services, removing the responsibility from weakest councils and placing them into trust.
They are pledging to introduce comprehensive Relationships and Sex Education in all primary and secondary schools where they will learn about the risks of the internet and online grooming.
The Conservatives are pledging not to repeal the Human Rights Act and to remain signatories of the European Convention on Human Rights for the duration of the Parliament. However, they have not mentioned the European Convention on the Rights of the Child.
You can view the Conservatives manifesto here.
Within their manifesto launched on the 16th May 2017, the Labour Party have correctly identified that there is a gap between the end of maternity leave and full-
Labour have identified the evidence that shows the major impact that good quality early years education has on child development. Research, they say, has also shown that good early years education can improve children’s results at GCSE level.
So, what are Labour pledging to do should they win on June the 8th?
The Labour Manifesto has a 6-
1. Overhaul of childcare subsidy making subsidy direct from Government.
2. Maintain the current commitments on free hours and make significant capital investment in the first 2 years.
3. Phase in subsidised provision on top of the free hour entitlement to ensure access to affordable childcare.
4. Transition to a qualified graduate led workforce, by improving staff wages and training opportunities.
5. Extend the 30 free hours to all 2-
6. Halt the closure of Sure Start centres and increase the amount of money available for Sure Start.
Labour are promising to publish, within the first 100 days, a new childhood obesity strategy with proposals on food advertising and food labelling. They will make a concerted effort to address childhood poor oral health and implement the industry levy, often referred to as a sugar tax.
They are promising to enshrine the European Convention on the Rights of the Child into domestic law.
Labour also highlight the much-
You can view the Labour manifesto here.
Scottish Nationalist Party
The Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP) became the UK’s 3rd largest party at Westminster at the last General Election in 2015, replacing the Liberal Democrats. The SNP are representing the wishes of Scotland in Westminster and lead the Scottish Assembly. Education is a devolved policy area in Scotland.
The SNP launched their manifesto on the 30th May 2017, and have set out 13 key pledges, we are pleased to see that Education is key pledge number 4 on their list. We all know that the SNP is best known for one key policy area which is splitting the union of the UK as we know it and gaining independence for Scotland, in this manifesto this is key pledge number 11.
The SNP state very clearly in their manifesto that education is an investment not just in the children but in society and the economy as a whole.
Although Early Years is a devolved policy in Scotland, they say that they pledge to increase the number of free early years education and childcare to 30 hours by 2021 for 2 year olds from low income houses and all 3 and 4 year olds. They have made a commitment to spending money to ensure that all private nurseries delivering their childcare pledge are able to pay their staff the real Living Wage.
On the subject of Human Rights, the SNP’s manifesto highlights the European Convention on Human Rights is enshrined in the Scotland Act 1998, ensuring that the Scottish Government protects human rights, as well as any Scottish legislation. Any MPs that are elected from SNP will oppose any attempt to scrap the Human Rights Act and to withdraw from the European Convention on Human Rights.
You can view the Scottish Nationalist Party’s manifesto here.
On the 17th of May 2017, the Liberal Democrats released their 97-
They have highlighted 3 main priorities for the next Parliament should they win the election on June the 8th as follows:
1. Invest nearly £7billion extra into children’s education.
2. Invest in high-
3. Oppose any new selective schools and give Local Authorities proper democratic controls.
The Liberal Democrat manifesto states that they would like schools to have flexibility and introduce a slimmed down core National curriculum. They also want, by the end of the next Parliament, to have at least one Early Years Teacher qualified staff member in every formal setting.
The Liberal Democrats are looking to build upon the free childcare currently on offer to all 2 year olds and to the children of working families from the end of the paid paternal leave. They are also looking to encourage new fathers to take time off with an additional month’s paid paternity leave.
Liberal Democrats have also vowed to enshrine the European Convention on the Rights of the Child into UK law.
The Liberal Democrats are also promising to give the vote to 16 and 17 year olds lowering the current legal age of voting.
You can view the Liberal Democrats manifesto here.
Democratic Unionist Party
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) representing Northern Ireland, launched their Westminster manifesto on the 31st May 2017. One of our specialism areas, Education, is devolved in Northern Ireland.
Their manifesto says that they are committed to defending and improving the education in Northern Ireland to ensure that every child in Northern Ireland has the opportunity to achieve in life.
They are pledging to fight for sufficient budgets and resources for the frontline education institutions. They want to give schools more autonomy in their decision-
Within the DUP manifesto there is no mention of early years as a separate entity, there are 14 lines as considered above covering education as a whole.
This manifesto mainly focuses on restoring devolution, which is relevant as the Assembly in Northern Ireland is currently not working, as well as wanting to make a success of Brexit, again is common sense from the DUP as their constituencies have a land border with the EU.
You can view the Democratic Unionists Party manifesto here.
Sinn Fein became the first Northern Irish political party to launch their manifesto. They have 3 very key messages throughout their manifesto, which they obviously feel very strongly about as it is on every page, these are:
No Tory cuts.
Like many other policy areas, education is devolved in Northern Ireland, however as this is a UK wide election therefore Sinn Fein have made reference to education in their manifesto.
The Sinn Fein manifesto talks about education but nothing about the Early Years sector. So we have focused on their plans for Education, where they say that they would like to see Northern Ireland with special status within the EU to safeguard schools, and universities and the education system. They are prioritising access to the EU funding that Northern Ireland currently receives. They are wanting to continue the access to EU wide research opportunities, along with having an all-
They have taken a slightly different approach to other political parties in relation to the European Convention on Human Rights and access to the European Court of Human Rights which comes along with it, Sinn Fein are looking to get a designated special status within the EU to safeguard the rights and access to the European Court.
You can view the Sinn Fein manifesto here.
May the 16th saw the launch of the Plaid Cymru’s manifesto for the Westminster election on June the 8th. The manifesto is laid out differently to many other manifestos we have looked at and in this case, is set out as a clear action plan for the next 5 years.
The area of education is devolved to the Welsh Assembly, however the manifesto makes pledges for the policies they would look to make during the next Parliament. Plaid Cymru pledges to ‘give every child in Wales a chance’.
They have pledged to provide all 3 year olds with free full-
The Plaid Cymru manifesto is also promising to publish a Human Rights Charter for Wales, the action plan implies this will protect human rights of the Welsh people and is also based on the backdrop of the Human Rights Act.
You can view the Plaid Cymru manifesto here.
Social Democratic and Labour Party
The Social Democratic and Labour Party(SDLP) is a political party representing Northern Ireland. As we have discussed earlier, education is a devolved policy area in Northern Ireland. However, as the June 8th poll is an election to Westminster the SDLP have made their education pledges.
The SDLP recognise the vital role that early education has on young people’s development. They state very clearly that they believe it is important for every child to access the highest level of support, and are campaigning to increase free childcare provision to 20 hours per week with a view to further increasing to 30 hours.
The SDLP state that existing funding for childcare must be safeguarded through the Childcare Strategy. They say that reducing the cost of childcare to families removes a barrier for those seeking to gain work or training, in their words benefitting the whole economy.
The SDLP make the point that the Human Rights Act underpins the Good Friday agreement, and therefore they will stridently oppose any attempt to devalue this act, they will also vehemently oppose any attempt to withdraw from the European Convention on Human Rights.
One thing that we quite liked about their manifesto is the attention to detail they have given to listing the names of their candidates and the constituency that they will be standing in.
You can view the Social and Democratic Labour Party’s manifesto here.
Ulster Unionist Party
On the 2nd of June 2017, the Ulster Unionist Party released their Westminster manifesto.
It is a very short manifesto, which in the forward readers are told that any UUP MPs elected for Westminster would champion recent and detailed policies in their Stormont election manifesto which is available on their website. They do however highlight their 5 key areas in the UK election, of which the fifth one is a world-
We have taken a look at their Stormont manifesto, to take a closer look at their plans for education and childcare. They say that they are committed to developing and implementing a childcare strategy to meet the wide ranging needs of parents in Northern Ireland. They say they want a system which is affordable with care and attention being given to children with specific needs.
They also believe that children of all ages should be educated together regardless of religious background.
As they are directing their readers to their Stormont manifesto we have provided a link to both manifestos below.
You can view the Ulster Unionist Party’s Stormont manifesto here.
You can view the Ulster Unionist Party’s manifesto here.
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party launched their manifesto on the 22nd May 2017. The detail within their manifesto is succinct and to the point. The Green Party of England and Wales state that education transforms lives, and that they believe education is a right.
The Green Party of England and Wales have pledged to provide free universal early education and childcare for all children with formal education starting at age 7. Like other political parties in this campaign the Greens are promising to lower the age of voting to 16.
The Green Party of England and Wales have also pledged to implement a UK wide strategy to tackle gender based violence, which in their words would include domestic violence, rape, sexual abuse and Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
There is also discussion in their manifesto, about politics being done by the people not to them. They have promised to defend the Human Rights Act and UK membership of the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as enabling every young person to take an active role in democracy, introducing non-
You can view the Green Party of England and Wales manifesto here.
UK Independence Party
The United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) was the first of the parties to launch their manifestos after the horrendous events in Manchester on Monday the 22nd May 2017. The manifesto was launched on the 25th May 2017. Within the manifesto they state that ‘Britain has produced some of the most remarkable people in world history’. In their education section they say that UKIP’s approach to education is one where no child is held back. They have separated education and Early Years in their manifesto. UKIP have pledged to remove restrictions on the settings that parents can chose for their children by removing the requirement to use an Ofsted registered provider. They also pledge to lengthen the school day to provide wrap-
They are pledging to stand by their 2015 election promise to legislate for a 50-
They are also pledging, like other parties, to abolish University Tuition fees.
On the subject of FGM, UKIP are pledging:
To make it a criminal offence not to report concerns.
To implement a screening programme for girls identified at being at risk of FGM from birth to age 16.
An annual non-
Carry out additional checks on girls who return to the UK from trips where FGM is known to be customary.
Make FGM an indictable offence meaning it can only be heard at Crown Courts with a sentence starting at 6 years.
You can view the UK Independence Party’s manifesto here.
Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
The Alliance Party represent Northern Ireland where Education is devolved.
The Alliance Party has pledged to increase affordable childcare in Northern Ireland, they have set out 6 points aimed at improving the financial situation of children within Northern Ireland. These include, supporting a dual provision of childcare vouchers and childcare payments ensuring that both are available for new applicants. The Alliance Party are looking to increase the number of tax-
The Party manifesto wants to restore a UK wide target on reducing child poverty.
The Alliance Party manifesto states that the party respects and promotes:
civil liberties and
They say that they believe these issues are universal and must be respected by all Governments across the world. The say that they are going to stand up for these issues as well as promoting our British Values abroad helping to promote a world which in their words is:
respects human rights and
supports political freedom.
Like some other parties, the Alliance Party in their manifesto have made particular reference to the European Convention on Human Rights, pledging their support for it and that they will oppose any attempt to repeal or withdraw from the Convention as well as the Human Rights Act.
The Alliance Party have made a manifesto pledge, like many other parties, to lower the legal age of voting from 18 down to 16
You can view the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland’s manifesto here.
Scottish Green Party
Although our subject areas are devolved in Scotland, the Scottish Greens have highlighted what they would introduce should they win the election and gain power, even if in a coalition.
The Scottish Green Party state in the manifesto that they believe Education to be a right for all children, and that they believe it should be equally accessible at all stages of people’s lives.
Like other parties vying for election, the Scottish Greens are campaigning to reduce the age of voting to 16, as it is already in Scotland. They are also looking to get rid of age range related National Minimum wages and instigate a real Living Wage for all ages, they have quoted a figure of ‘at least £10 per hour’.
They state very clearly that as education is the responsibility for the Scottish Assembly, at Westminster they will fight for principles of free and inclusive education.
The party believe that the UK should remain a part of the European Convention on Human Rights and support adopting the European Social Charter in order to protect fundamental social and economic rights, and will be opposed to any effort to repeal the Human Rights Act 1998.
You can view the Scottish Green Party manifesto here.
Green Party of Northern Ireland
As in Scotland, Education is devolved in Northern Ireland, however the Green Party of Northern Ireland make pledges for Westminster.
The Party make the same statement on Education as their Scottish counterparts: ‘Education is a right for all children’, and that they believe ‘it should be equally accessible at all stages of people’s lives.’
They have made the point that we also believe, that the years between birth and starting school are key for learning and development. They promise to introduce a universal early years’ provision to enable all children to receive high-
Theirs is the first manifesto we have read to pledge a flexible school starting age recognising that a one size doesn’t fit all and to put children first.
The Green Party of Northern Ireland say that human rights are the foundation of a progressive, modern society; therefore they are pledging to defend the Human Rights Act.
One little quirk in their manifesto that we particularly liked is the inclusion of photographs of their candidates across the constituencies of Northern Ireland, the first time we had seen this in a manifesto.
You can view the Green Party of Northern Ireland manifesto here.
Traditional Unionist Party
With the Westminster General Election taking place a week from today, the Traditionalist Unionist Party is one of 2 Northern Irish political parties that are yet to release their manifesto for the election on June the 8th.
People Before Profit Party
The People Before Profit Party is the second Northern Irish party and party from our logo circle above to yet release their Westminster manifesto for the election on June the 8th.
And now for a little light relief of another party standing in the General Election 2017…
The Monster Raving Looney Party
The Monster Raving Looney Party has got 12 candidates standing in this election, one such candidate is standing in Gloucester. The party refers to their manifesto as a Manicfesto.
Whilst we do not want to rewrite all of their pledges, which we find quite funny, we thought we would mention a couple of their manicfesto pledges.
Their first pledge is to provide everyone with free beanie hats so as when they are in power they can pull the wool over your eyes.
The Education Policy of The Monster Raving Looney Party is that all schools would have a jumble sale, fête, or other fundraising twice a month to help raise funds for the little extras like desks, books and paper. They too will reduce the age of voting down to 16, a pledge which they state another party stole from them!
The Monster Raving Looney Party also have a Social Media Policy, where they would turn Social Media off one day a year and call it ‘Recall how to talk day’
For more information on the Monster Raving Looney Party manicfesto, visit their dedicated web page.
As we are all aware, a manifesto is set out to win votes from the general public to return a series of MPs back to Westminster to make up our Parliament for the next 5 years. However, just because a manifesto is put out there, it is common for the promises to change or not to make it on the statute books during the Parliament. However, we hope that you have enjoyed our review of the manifestos from the parties, and please do remember that we do not condone or endorse any of the manifestos and have compiled this blog to highlight what has been planned within the areas that we work in.
We wish all candidates well in their campaigns and
look forward to seeing the results during the night of the 8th of June.
So, every 3 years you check your certificates and have that dread, ‘Oh no, I’ve got to do First Aid again!’ well have you ever wondered where First Aid began?
Firstly, we would ask, why are you dreading your First Aid course? Come do your course with us and we will ensure that not only do you complete the course, and get your qualification to continue as a First Aider, but also you will have some fun throughout.
First aid can be traced back a long way in history as far as the Prehistoric age, although we have no actual concrete evidence of Prehistoric Man conducting life-
Let’s consider a minute, Prehistoric Man is in a situation where his ‘friend’ has an open bleeding wound, fractured bone in his leg or is about to eat a poisonous plant. In these situations, it is reasonable to assume that due to necessity, Prehistoric Man developed methods to treat ailments and accidents that befell him. It would have probably come easy to him to realise that plugging an open wound would eventually stop the bleeding, or strapping a branch to a leg as a splint would still enable him to hobble around the place even with a fractured bone. We have to assume that he also developed ways of calculating whether a plant was a poisonous plant or not.
Without Prehistoric Man working these few things out, how would mankind have survived to where we are today?
If we look through history we can see that bandages were used in many different ways, including by the Ancient Egyptians who used bandages to mummify their dead, especially those of power who then went on to be laid to rest in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, for example, King Tutankhamun. Not only did they have this use for bandages, but they are the first known to use bandages to treat injuries, in particular the high genius doctor Imhotep.
Who is Imhotep?
Imhotep was an Egyptian chancellor to the Pharaoh Djoser, and is the probable architect of the step pyramid. Imhotep’s name means the one who comes in peace. According to his legacy and Egyptian mythology, this meaning and therefore name is totally apt. Curiously, very little is actually known about Imhotep as an historical figure although over the 3000 years since his death he has been gradually glorified and deified (worshipped or regarded as a god). Legend shows that he was a:
However, these claims are not based on his life but on texts in the millennia after his death.
We are obviously focusing in on the claim of Imhotep being a physician, around 2000 years after his death, his status was risen to that of a god of medicine and healing. Interestingly the Greeks have equated Imhotep to their own god of medicine, Asklepios, although there is no actual evidence that Imhotep was indeed a physician.
Early History (Continued)
There are reports that many ancient Greek Doctors, travelled to Egypt to study and then returned to Greece to practice.
Bandaging as we know it, is depicted in early Greek pottery from about the year 500 BCE, these images and pottery can be witnessed and seen in museums all around the world, and are some of the first images of modern First Aid.
The Parable of the Good Samaritan, a didactic story told by Jesus in Luke 10:25-
Battles and wars over this period do seem to point to early First Aid being carried out, the first such references are from the Roman Army. Within the Roman Army there were specific roles entitled the capsarii, responsible for carrying out First Aid tasks such as bandaging the wounded.
The Roman Army is important to us as a business as we operate out of their Capital City Corinium, today’s UK Capital City London was actually Roman UK’s second city Londinium.
1000 – 1800 AD
The first recorded history of First Aid stems from 1099, which details a religious order of knights who were trained to administer medical treatment. The Order of St John specialised in the treatment of battlefield injuries during crusades, and are the first recorded people who were trained to carry out First Aid. The Order of St John can be traced back as the route for the modern-
During the late 18th Century, a major concern of death was drowning. In 1767 a society was formed in Amsterdam entitled, Society for Prevention of Life from Accidents in Water, thus attempting to prevent drowning as it was becoming such a risk of death. Linked in to this formation of the Society, physician William Hawes in 1773, began publicising the power of artificial resuscitation as a means of resuscitating casualties who have been drowned, and helped to form in 1774 the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned which later became the Royal Humane Society. This society has done much to promote the benefits of resuscitation.
1800 – 1900
In 1859, Jean-
Dunant was so shocked that he took the initiative to organise the civilian population, especially women and girls, to provide some assistance to the war wounded soldiers. The civilian population lacked resources and materials in order to fully support the needs of the war wounded, Dunant himself organised the purchase of materials and set up makeshift hospitals. He convinced the population to look after the wounded regardless of the side of the battle they were on, using the slogan ‘Tutti Fratelli’ (All are brothers). He also managed to secure the release of Austrian doctors captured by the French.
During July 1859, Jean-
The book was acclaimed largely positively by the readership, in particular the President of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare, who made the book and its contents the topic of a meeting on the 9th February 1863, where the recommendations were assessed and positively examined. The members of the meeting created a 5-
In 1870, a Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced formalised first aid training to the military, and he first used the phrase ‘erste hilfe’ which translates to First Aid. His formalisation included training for soldiers in the Franco-
In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England (as discussed under a slightly different name earlier) changed their focus from a hospice organisation to start a system of practical medical help; they started this process by making a grant towards the establishment of the UK’s first ambulance service. They continued to improve their organisation and in 1875 established their own transport and became St John Ambulance and 2 years later set up the foundations for today’s St John Ambulance, the St John Ambulance Association in order to ‘train men and women for the benefit of the sick and wounded.’
In the UK, Surgeon-
In 1878, thanks to Surgeon-
First Aid training began to spread throughout the British Empire through such organisations as St John and the Red Cross, often as they were in the UK focusing in on high risk activities such as ports and railways.
Although First Aid origins have changed very little since Shepherd’s inception of his lecture programme, the syllabus and best practice in First Aid has changed as we will look at briefly in the next section of this blog.
One piece of legislation that has a minor impact on First Aid is The National Health Service Act 1946, which came into effect in 1948, which made it a statutory requirement for ambulances to be made available to be called out by anyone who needed them, laying the foundations for the NHS Ambulance Service as we know it today.
Early First Aid Courses
Some of the earliest First Aid courses would not be accepted in the world that we live in today.
For example, imagine walking into our courses and picking up the training manual that we provide and reading the words:
‘mixed classes of men and women are on no account permitted’.
How would you feel if you read this? Well that is what met learners on their training manuals in 1908. How the times have changed in just one hundred and nine years!
Further examination of the syllabus of 1908 also shows how the world has changed since then. In 1908, there were 5 lectures, lectures 1 to 4 were standard lectures for men and women, however lecture 5 was very gender specific.
Lecture 5 for men focused on:
Dealing with stretchers,
Carrying casualties, and
Lecture 5 for women focused on:
Preparation for the arrival of casualties,
Removal of clothing, and
Preparations for surgeons.
This specific lecture shows how sexist attitudes to gender existed back in the early 1900s, society in the UK has moved on largely from this preconception and you would never see this polarised view on a course today.
We thought that we would provide you with some First Aid advice given in 1908 for hysteria, the training manual would describe the casualty as a young girl, the treatment for hysteria is as follows:(according to the manual of 1908):
1. Avoid sympathy with the patient, and speak firmly to her.
2. Threaten her with cold water douche, and if she persists in her ‘fit’, sprinkle her with cold water.
3. Apply a mustard leaf to the back of her neck.
We are not sure that this advice would go down well in this era of time, but it does highlight to us how different the world really has become in the last century, especially in the area of First Aid.
Brief note on pre-
Our main aims of First Aid are the same today as they were back in the 11th Century and of the knights who were specialising in the medical care on the battlefield.
However, over recent years pre-
Not only that, but as we have previously discussed on our European Resuscitation Guidelines 2015 blog, First Aid practices and best practice is today based on research and evidence to ensure the best possible outcome for as many casualties as is possible.
During September 2017 we will be launching our newest course in our suite of safeguarding courses, An Introduction to Whistle-
What is whistle-
The principle of whistle-
When is whistle-
Anyone can blow the whistle on practice that they see that does not meet required standards. There is a whole lot of reasons and incidence where this may be the case. During the next section of this blog we will look at some famous cases where whistle-
If we look at the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) we can see that there is a clear set of standards and procedures that need to be followed by people who are working in the Early Years sector. Anyone who witnesses working behaviour which is contrary to these requirements should be actively encouraged by their employer and the regulatory body (Ofsted) to report this malpractice to them. Of course, it is not just the Early Years Foundation Stage that dictates to people when they should whistle-
Although we have focused a lot on the Early Years sector, it is important to point out that whistle-
William Mark Felt was instrumental in disclosing information around the events of Watergate in America which ultimately ended the Presidency of Richard M. Nixon.
Felt worked for the FBI and in May 1972 until his retirement was the Associate Director, which is the second highest position within the FBI. During this time, he served as an anonymous informant for reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post. He was nicknamed ‘Deep Throat’. Although, the true identity of Deep Throat was suspected by many within Washington, including President Nixon himself, the true identity remained a secret for the next 30 years. In 2005, he finally acknowledged that he was Deep Throat having been encouraged by his family.
As Associate Director, all reports came through Felt before going off to the Acting Director, and therefore he was able to pass the information on to the Washington Post as well as up the chain to the Acting Director. Many agents were surprised to be reading in the papers verbatim interviews that they had had only days or weeks earlier.
What was Watergate?
Watergate is an American Political Scandal, that occurred in the 1970s, following a break-
The whole episode, finally ended the 37th US President’s term in office, when he became the first, and to date the only, US President to resign from office on August 9th, 1974.
Linda Tripp was a US Civil Servant, who figured in the Monica Lewinsky scandal in 1994-
Linda Tripp’s role in this scandal was the secret recording of Monica Lewinsky’s telephone calls about her affair with the President. In doing so and releasing the details, she caused a sensation in the United States, especially with the links to a previous case, Jones vs Clinton, as well as releasing intimate details of the alleged affair.
So how did Tripp get in a position to tape Lewinsky?
While working in the Pentagon’s Public Affairs office, Tripp became a close confidante of Lewinsky, having known each other for a year and a half when Lewinsky revealed to Tripp that she had been in a physical relationship with the President.
In August 1997, Tripp is reported to have said that she saw another employee leave the Oval Office looking dishevelled, with her face red and lipstick off. It is reported that this employee claimed that Clinton had groped her, however the Clinton Lawyer Robert S. Bennett stated that Tripp is not to be believed.
It was in January 1998, when Tripp handed her tapes into the then Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr in return for immunity of prosecution. She explained to Starr that she believed Clinton and Lewinsky had been in an affair and that Lewinsky had filed a false affidavit denying the relationship.
Famously, Bill Clinton went on US television to deny his relationship with Lewinsky saying, ‘I did not have sexual relations with that woman’. Having both appeared in front of a Washington D.C. Grand Jury, he by CCTV and her in person, she was asked if she wanted to add anything to her evidence and simply replied, ‘I hate Linda Tripp’.
Linda Tripp claimed that her motives for releasing the details were purely patriotic, and she was able to avoid a wiretap charge in exchange for handing in the tapes. She was removed from her post at the end of the Clinton Administration, which she claims was vindictive, but the administration claimed it was standard routine.
Julian Assange is famous as the creator, with others, of the website WikiLeaks in 2006. Assange is a member of the organisation’s Advisory Board and calls himself the Editor-
WikiLeaks has published secret information, leaked news and classified information from anonymous sources. By 2015, WikiLeaks had published somewhere in the region of 10 million different documents, and was described by Assange as ‘the world’s greatest library of persecuted documents’.
Between 2006 and 2009, the material that was released through the WikiLeaks website was received with varying degrees of publicity. It was only when it started to publish documents and information that were received by Chelsea Manning, a former United States of America Army Soldier, that WikiLeaks was turned into a household name. Manning was court-
The information that Manning passed onto to WikiLeaks included:
A video entitled Collateral Murder video (showing 18 people killed by US soldiers in a helicopter in Iraq).
The Afghanistan War logs.
The Iraq War logs.
250,000 diplomatic cables.
The Guantánamo Files.
Buttons/Just Learning Nurseries
These 2 nurseries found themselves at the centre of a Panorama investigation in 2008. The investigation began when an Ofsted inspector contacted a journalist working on the Panorama programme and detailed issues with nursery care within England.
The inspector told the reporter that of 700 nurseries inspected that year by her and her colleagues, she would only send her children to 5 of them, and said that the Ofsted reports, all that parents have to go on, aren’t worth the paper they are written on. The reporter was told that the inspectors had been told, ‘if you don’t see a problem, don’t look for one’ and ‘take a quick look and get out.’
The Panorama reporter had had a tip off about Buttons, Hanwell, West London. The reporter found:
A cursory interview = given job as Nursery Assistant.
No one checked her references in the 5 weeks that she was there.
Never received the all clear from the Criminal Records Bureau.
No one noticed her inexperience and she was one of the eldest there.
Many were trainees with no idea what they were doing.
No on the job training was being given.
Was left on her own with 13 children, (without a cleared CRB).
Found herself having to remove dangerous objects from the children.
Bad staff practice was witnessed.
You can read the BBC Whistle-
Also we have included the link to the Nursery World page where the nurseries respond to the allegations made, here.
The Winterbourne View case also came to light in a Panorama documentary investigation in 2011.
Winterbourne View was a privately-
The Panorama investigation highlighted both physical and psychological abuse to the residents at the care home. The residents were all suffering from learning difficulties and challenging behaviour. Local Social Services and the regulator Care Quality Commission (CQC) had received various warnings about the goings on in the care home; one senior nurse had reported his concerns to the management of Winterbourne View and the CQC, but sadly his report was never taken up.
Undercover footage showed a whole host of treatment meted out to the residents that a clinical psychologist concluded amounted to nothing less than torture!
The treatment witnessed in the footage included:
Staff repeatedly assaulting and harshly restraining residents under chairs.
Cold punishment showers.
Left outside in near zero degrees temperatures.
Mouthwash poured into a resident’s eyes.
Pulling of patient’s hair.
Forcing medication into their mouths.
Being constantly poked in the eyes.
One patient was seen trying to jump out of a second-
11 people pleaded guilty to criminal offences of neglect and abuse as a result of the undercover footage. 6 of them were jailed. Immediately after the 11th person pleaded guilty a Serious Case Review was published which highlighted hundreds of previous incidents and missed warnings.
Panorama, and their footage, helped to ensure that the torment these patients were experiencing came to an end and also helped with the closing of Winterbourne View.
Edward Snowden became famous in 2013, when he copied and therefore disclosed classified information from the American National Security Agency. The disclosures that Snowden made revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many that were run by the National Security Agency and Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the co-
The disclosure that Snowden made was around previously unknown details of global surveillance apparatus run by the National Security Agency. It was thought in November 2013 that only 1% of the documents had been released and a lot worse was to come.
2 main surveillance programs were disclosed:
PRISM allowed direct court-
Tempora is a black ops surveillance program run by the US National Security Agency’s British partner GCHQ, based in Cheltenham.
These programs are the tip of the iceberg, but shocked the world that they were in existence.
Edward Snowden came to international attention when stories around the documents he had released were published in The Guardian and the Washington Post.
Snowden’s motivation for this disclosure, it could be said, is summed up by a quote he gave in June 2013, which was, ‘All I can say right now is the US Government is not going to be able to cover this up by jailing or murdering me. Truth is coming, and it cannot be stopped.’
What you can do next
Hopefully, you have enjoyed this brief look through some famous whistle-
Alternatively, if you feel that you need to whistle-
Gloucestershire Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO): 01452 42 6994/425017
Wiltshire Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO): 0300 456 0100
Ofsted Complaints number: 0300 123 1231
This year’s European Restart a Heart Day is on October 16th, 2017.
What is European Restart a Heart Day?
European Restart a Heart Day is a day designated across the whole of Europe to teach the vital life-
This will be the 4th year of European Restart a Heart Day, with last year’s event seeing 150,581 young people trained to carry out CPR.
Why is European Restart a Heart Day important?
In the UK, regrettably survival rates for casualties who have had a cardiac arrest is as low as just 6%. This is a really sad fact. However, The Resuscitation Council (UK), The European Resuscitation Council (ERC), The Department of Health and Voluntary Aid Societies are recognised as determined to improve this figure.
It is fair to say that all other First Aid organisations, including The Training Fox, are determined to ensure that this survival rate is as high as it can be.
The statistics do look a lot healthier when all the links in the Chain of Survival take place promptly. The survival rate in this instance is 74%.
The Chain of Survival
So, I hear you ask, what is the Chain of Survival? The Chain of Survival has 4 links in the chain as follows:
Early Identification and Call,
Post Resuscitation Care.
When the chain of survival is promptly undertaken, the chances of a casualty surviving greatly increases. Of course, the best way for bystanders and emergency responders to learn the skills behind the Chain of Survival is to attend a course, The Training Fox has a wide range of First Aid courses, which we are confident will meet your requirements.
The next part of our blog, will focus on the Chain of Survival, but should not be seen as training!
Early Identification and Call
In order to get the casualty the help and aid that they require, it is imperative that the emergency aider contacts the emergency services on 999/112 as soon as they have identified that the casualty is not breathing. A good way of not delaying the emergency services is to make use of the loudspeaker functionality of a mobile telephone.
It is important that anyone who calls the Emergency operator understands that answering any of the questions that the operator asks will not delay an ambulance, although the operator will have to prioritise cases to ensure the casualty who needs help quickest receives this. A non-
The advantage of using the loudspeaker functionality of the mobile telephone allows the emergency aider to start CPR as soon as possible, having identified the lack of breathing of the casualty. The best position for the mobile telephone to be placed is on the floor next to the head of the casualty, so that the operator is clearly heard by the emergency helper.
How to carry out Cardio-
Below is a guide to the steps required to carry out CPR:
1. Place the casualty on a hard surface,
2. Kneel at the side of the casualty, ensuring that you are comfortable,
3. Start Chest Compressions –
Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the casualty’s chest,
Place your other hand on top, interlocking fingers and lift fingers up,
Lock your elbows out, to ensure your arms remain straight and vertical,
Press down on the sternum to a depth of 5 to 6cm (a 1/3 of the chest cavity, or approximately the width of a debit/credit card),
Release all the pressure, keeping contact with the casualty’s skin,
Do 30 Chest compressions at the rate of 100-
Avoid pressure over the ribs, base of sternum or the upper abdomen.
4. After 30 Chest Compressions, start rescue breaths –
If you have one available, you should place a resuscitation face shield onto the casualty, as a barrier between you and the casualty,
Pinch the soft part of the casualty’s nose,
Allow mouth to open, but maintain the chin lift,
Take a normal breath,
Seal your mouth around the casualty’s mouth,
Blow steadily into the casualty’s mouth, observing the chest to rise, take about one second to do this,
Keep the airway open, removing your mouth from the casualty,
Watch the chest fall as air comes out,
Take another normal breath,
Seal your mouth, once again around the casualty’s mouth,
Blow steadily once again into the casualty’s mouth, observing the chest to rise, take about one second to do this,
Return your hands without delay to the centre of the chest.
Do not interrupt compressions by more than 10 seconds to give 2 rescue breaths
Do not try more than 2 rescue breaths, as the airway may be obstructed
5. Continue CPR at a ratio of 30 chest compressions to 2 rescue breaths.
The above process is designed to be used to administer CPR to an adult casualty who is over the onset of puberty. There are some amendments that should be considered on younger casualties:
If you are on your own, give 1minute of CPR before going for help,
Prior to conducting chest compressions, administer 5 rescue breaths, in the same way as detailed above, then follow the CPR at a rate of 30:2,
Use 1 or 2 hand(s) to compress the chest,
Chest should be compressed to about 5 cm.
Baby (Under 1-
If you are on your own, give 1minute of CPR before going for help,
Prior to conducting chest compressions, administer 5 rescue breaths, in the same way as detailed above, then follow the CPR at a rate of 30:2,
Use 2 fingers to compress the chest,
Chest should be compressed to about 4 cm.
To reduce fatigue of the emergency aider, if you have more than 1 aider, it is good practice to swap over every 2 minutes, whilst minimising the delay of chest compression.
If you are trained and able, you should follow the CPR steps taught on your First Aid course and detailed above. However, should you be untrained or feel unable to provide rescue breaths, providing chest compressions is better than doing nothing at all. This is known as Hands-
There is a risk, that your casualty will vomit while you are conducting CPR, this is an involuntary process from the body and not a sign that the casualty is coming round, or going to be ok. As vomiting is a passive action, you are unlikely to see or hear the signs that vomiting is imminent, however vomit in the airway makes gurgling sounds when you give rescue breaths. Should your casualty vomit:
Roll the casualty onto their side,
Tip their head back,
Allow the vomit to run out.
Having done this, you should clean the casualty’s face, and then if possible use a resuscitation face shield, but throughout, minimise the interruption to chest compressions.
So, when do we stop CPR?
a. A health professional tells you to stop,
b. You become exhausted,
c. The casualty is definitely waking up, moving, eyes opening and breathing normally.
Early defibrillation is carried out by the emergency aider using a machine called an Automated External Defibrillator, also known as an AED or Defib. The defibrillator can be used by any member of the public, as the machine will talk you through the steps required step by step. There is no way that the defibrillator can be misused or used on someone who is not in actual need of defibrillation.
The AED will guide the user through each of the steps, ensuring they have been completed before carrying on to the next stage. The AED machine can detect if requirements have been done, this is helpful because it means the user just has to focus on following the instructions provided and not have to remember information from a previous course, or find that the particular Public Access Defibrillator (PAD) being used is different to the one that they practised on in training.
You should always send someone else to get the defibrillator, if you are on your own it is much better to start and carry out CPR than it is to not do CPR. Remember CPR will keep oxygenated blood reaching the brain, and if no oxygen is getting to the brain it will start to die.
When the helper returns with an AED, you should encourage them to follow the steps of the AED machine to set up, whilst you maintain CPR. If they are resistant, see if they can maintain CPR while you set up the AED, at all times minimising the interruption to chest compressions.
Step 1 -
The emergency responder must remove all clothing from the casualty’s chest and torso, this will ensure that the AED pads will adhere to the skin. If necessary use the clothes’ removers to cut away clothing, and remember to remove a female casualty’s underwired bra, to ensure the electricity does not flow through the metal and prevent the machine from working. If you are dealing with a male casualty, pay attention to his chest hair and should there be a lot of hair on his chest, you should use the provided razor to shave the area where you are about to place the pads, thus ensuring the pads are able to adhere properly to the casualty’s body. If the casualty has a wet chest, this will also have to be dried off, there should be a towel/cloth in the AED bag, remember that electricity and water do not mix.
Step 2 – Locate AED Pads
Once you have opened the AED machine, this may have switched the AED on, if not use the standard on/off button that we are all familiar with in order to turn on the machine. (This operation varies from AED to AED make and model).
With the AED open, you now need to identify the AED pads, which are usually in a silver packet that will need to be torn open in order to access the pads. Pull the pads out of the packet and have a look at the diagram on them. The diagram on the pad is designed to illustrate to you, the AED operator, where to place the pads on the casualty.
Correct pad placement:
Pad 1: Upper right-
Pad 2: Lower left abdomen.
Pad 1: Centre of the child’s chest (Front),
Pad 2: Centre of the child’s chest (Back).
You will need to peel the pad off the protective carrier plastic, and without touching the sticky side of the pad, place it down in the right position of the casualty’s body. Press firmly on the pad to ensure that it has adhered well to the casualty’s body. With this pad in place, repeat the process to ensure that pad 2 goes into the correct position on the body.
Step 3 – Analyse Rhythm
With the AED pads in place, the AED machine will now take over control of the situation and will continue to tell the emergency aider what to do and when to do it. This is usually reassuring for the emergency aider as they now have support in following the procedure through, even if it is a mechanical voice, it can reassure that you are doing the right thing.
The AED machine will now state that people should not touch the casualty, as it is analysing the heart rhythm of the casualty. If a normal rhythm person is touching the casualty the AED could pick up this and then decide that the casualty has a normal rhythm and therefore no shock is required.
The emergency aider’s role here is to declare loudly:
Step 4: Shock is…
The AED machine has now analysed the rhythm and has decided if a shock is necessary or otherwise.
If a shock is advised, the AED will state that this is the case and then also say that it is charging. All the emergency aider can do at this point is wait, it will feel like you are waiting a long time, however in truth it is really only a few seconds.
The AED, once charged, will then display a button which is flashing: this is the button to deliver the shock to the casualty. The AED will give the voice command, ‘Press flashing shock button’ The emergency aider must then press the button to deliver the electric shock to the casualty, ensuring that no-
On pressing the button, the AED will deliver the shock to the casualty. As the shock is delivered through the casualty’s body it will ‘jump’, this is normal and you should not panic or be worried by this, you have probably seen this effect on the television.
Shock not Advised:
Should a shock not be advised the AED will inform the emergency aider of this, it will then move the emergency aider onto Step 5.
Some First Aiders will worry if the AED says no shock advised that they have made a mistake in starting CPR and applying the AED and actually the casualty didn’t need this level of support. In this situation, however, the emergency aider, shouldn’t feel this way, because they have used their first aid training to decide that the casualty was and is in need of help, and this is the better than the First Aider walking on by and doing nothing.
The other reason why an AED decides that the casualty does not need a shock, is because the casualty’s heart is in a non-
None of the reasons above are to be considered as a bad thing or a bad decision, because, as we say many times, doing something is better than doing nothing at all to try to save a casualty’s life.
Do Not Remove the Pads
Step 5: Start CPR
Once the AED has allowed a shock to be delivered OR has decided that no shock is advised, the AED will announce for the emergency aider to start CPR.
Some AEDs will use a beep tone to help you keep time to conduct appropriate and effective CPR, or even a light may be used for this process, some AEDs do not do this however.
CPR is now expected to be carried out for a period of 2 minutes, before the AED will then state that it is ready to reanalyse the casualty’s heart rhythm and repeat steps 3, 4, and 5.
At this point in the process, just simply follow the steps and vocal instructions by the AED machine.
Post Resuscitation Care
Successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is the first step towards the goal of complete recovery from cardiac arrest. As First Aiders, we are not expected, nor are we trained, to be able to support a casualty who has got spontaneous circulation back following on from a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This is why it is important the emergency services are called and are en route to your situation as soon as they possibly can be.
Should you be successful in getting return of spontaneous circulation to your casualty, you will need to look after and care for them in the intervening time of the arrival of an ambulance or better qualified medical practitioner than yourself. Invariably this would consist of maintaining the airway, using the recovery position, or if you are concerned about the spine, then using the Manual Inline Stabilisation manoeuvre, as taught on our First Aid courses.
Did you know:
Every year in the UK, there are approximately 60,000 out of hospital cardiac arrests.
If a defibrillator is used and effective CPR is performed within 3-
The brain starts to deteriorate after 3 minutes with no access to oxygen, and then loses 10% every minute thereafter.
This European Restart a Heart Day, if you are not on a First Aid course, but going about your everyday lives, and let’s be honest lives are incredibly busy, why not just stop for a few minutes and think, would I know what to do in order to Restart a Heart? Or why not take a walk on your lunch break, how many AEDs can you find in your local area?
Let’s all celebrate Restart a Heart Day even if we are only thinking about doing so.
Last of October
Big black cats
Ghosts and goblins
In the street
Are really children
Brought some friends
To help October
As it ends.
As Halloween approaches we thought that we would have a look at the origins of this day and also some helpful tips for safety whilst the children are out and about on the ‘Trick and Treat’ trail.
The triduum of Allhallowtide
The triduum of Allhallowtide is a three-
October 31st – All Hallows’ Eve
November 1st – All Saints’ Day
November 2nd – All Souls’ Day.
Allhallowtide is the time in the liturgical (Church year) calendar.
Throughout this blog, we shall explore these 3 days.
All Hallows’ Eve – 31st October
The celebration is observed by numerous western countries on the 31st October, the first day of the triduum of Allhallowtide. This date is the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Saints’ Day.
All Hallows’ Eve is dedicated to remembering the dead including saints, martyrs and all the faithful departed. The term All Hallows’ Eve dates back to Scottish origins. In Scots language the word eve is even often contracted to e’en or een. Over time All Hallows’ Eve has become (All) Hallow(s) E(v)en (Halloween). The word Halloween means Hallowed Evening. Although, All Hallows is found in Old English language, All Hallows’ Eve is not seen in language until 1556.
It is widely believed that All Hallows’ Eve traditionally originated from ancient Celtic harvest festivals particularly the Gaelic festival of Samhain, which is a festival which marks the end of the harvest season and the beginning of the darker half of the year. Samhain is approximately halfway between Autumn Equinox and the Winter Solstice. It is believed that All Hallows’ Eve has Pagan roots and along with Samhain has been Christianised by the Church.
Some also believe that All Hallows’ Eve began solely as a Christian holiday separate from ancient festivals like Samhain.
All Hallows’ Eve Activities
All Hallows’ Eve activities include:
Trick or Treating,
Carving Pumpkins into Jack O’ Lanterns,
Visiting haunted attractions,
Telling scary stories,
Watching horror movies.
In many parts of the world activities also include:
Attending Church services,
Lighting candles on the graves of the dead.
Historically, some Christians also abstain from eating meat.
Over recent times, many people believe that All Hallows’ Eve has become a more commercial and secular celebration.
All Saints’ Day – 1st November
All Saint’s Day is the second day in the triduum of Allhallowtide.
All Saints’ Day, also known as Festival of All Saints, is celebrated on November the 1st every year, it is a Christian festival celebrating all Saints known and unknown. The celebration stems from a strong belief in the spiritual bond between those in Heaven and the living.
All Saints’ Day can be traced back in the British Isles and Ireland to the 8th Century, coinciding with the Celtic festival of Samhain.
In English speaking countries, the festival is traditionally celebrated with the hymn ‘For All the Saints’ by Walsham How. The most familiar tune for this hymn is Sine Nomine by Ralph Vaughan Williams. For your reference we have provided a link to a Youtube video of this hymn.
All Souls’ Day – 2nd November
All Souls’ Day is the third and final day in the triduum of Allhallowtide.
All Souls’ Day is also known as Commemoration of All Faithful Departed, this day focuses on the honouring of all Christians who are unknown in the wider fellowship of the Church especially family and friends.
In recent times however, All Saints’ and All Souls’ days have become combined, meaning that Christians now remember all the dead souls and Saints on All Saints’ Day.
After 1030, All Souls’ Day was established by Saint Odilo of Cluny, which then spread across Western Europe.
As with the other 2 days in the Triduum of Allhallowtide the third day is marked with family members attending mass and placing flowers on graves of their loved ones. In many Anglican and Roman Catholic services, a 7th Century poem is read entitled The Office of the Dead.
In England, a popular tradition associated with All Souls Day is the tradition of souling, where bands of children or poor men go house-
have mercy on all
Christian souls for a
The main aim of this month’s blog is to explore the most common activities that take place during All Hallows’ Eve, the information provided above gives context as to how they fit into the Triduum of Allhallowtide.
Trick or Treating and Staying Safe
Trick or Treat is a Halloween custom in many countries, with children going from house-
Lit Jack O’Lanterns,
Artificial spider webs,
Some reluctant householders leave treats outside their house for the Trick or Treaters to collect without having to bother the householder by knocking.
What is a Trick or a Treat?
Treat = sweets (Candy in the US) or money.
Trick = usually is an idle threat to be performed on the home owner if no treat is given.
Trick or Treat in history
The ancient Greek predecessor of Trick or Treating is recorded by the writer, Athenaeus of Naucratis in his book ‘The Deipnosophists’ in which he describes an ancient custom on the Greek Island of Rhodes of children going house-
Trick or Treating has an interesting path through history, dating back to the 16th Century in the British Isles and Ireland, finally reaching and being documented in the United States in the 1920s.
There are accounts from the 19th Century of people going from house-
Scotland has a slightly different tradition that takes place on Halloween which is entitled ‘guising’. Guising is children dressed up in costumes going house-
Trick or Treat in pop culture
As Trick or Treating became more and more popular it started to be seen in pop culture as follows:
The Baby Snooks Show (Radio Programme) – 1946,
The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (Radio Programme) – 1946,
Jack and Jill (Children’s Magazine) – 1947,
Children’s Activities (Children’s Magazine) – 1947,
The Jack Benny Show (Radio Programme) – 1948,
Peanuts Comic Strip – 1951,
Walt Disney Trick or Treat – 1952.
In 1953, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) conducted a national campaign for children to raise funds whilst out and about Trick and Treating. They encouraged the children taking part to shout, ‘Trick or Treat for UNICEF’ when knocking on the door. The aim was to raise money for the fund to help children in developing countries.
In recent years, Trick or Treating has escalated to almost any abode in a neighbourhood including senior residences and blocks of flats.
Trick or Treat – Staying safe tips:
1. Plan your route in advance
Trick or Treating is meant to be fun, with that in mind remember that it can take you several streets away from home, this can cause tired legs and sore feet and therefore some grumpy little vampires. Avoid long treks by planning your route before you leave home, ensuring that you stick to paths that you and your child are familiar with to avoid the chance of getting lost.
2. Wear comfy shoes
Always make sure that you and your child are comfortable to walk in the shoes decided. Girls wearing dresses should avoid high heels, and shoelaces should be double-
3. Make sure all costumes are short
Long costumes that drag on the floor, can make it easy for your child to trip over or be dragged over by someone standing on the train of the dress, the dark will make this an easier event to occur. Once a costume has been purchased, have the child try it on, and then hem anything which is too long, reducing tripping hazards.
4. Avoid Masks
Masks can make it difficult for the child to see where they are going as well as restricting breathing; it would be a better idea to use make-
5. Stick together
Make sure that every child in the group understands that they are not to go off on a solo mission, and that they must remain with the group and the supervising adult.
6. Houses to avoid
Ensure that the children are made aware that they should only visit houses which have some kind of decoration on the house, signalling that they are happy to ‘play the game’, and also ensuring that lights are on in the houses.
7. Never enter a house
Children may get excited at this time of the year by promises of sweets/treats, remind them that the normal ‘stranger danger’ rules apply, and they must not go into someone’s house, you never know who is in the house.
8. Think light!
A top rule must be that you only Trick or Treat in a well-
9. Check the sweets given
It is better to be safe rather than sorry, when it comes to allowing the children to delve into their treasure.
When you get home after Trick or Treating check that all sweets are in original packaging and look sealed, any treasure which does not meet this requirement must be discarded.
10. Fill up
‘Double, double, toil and trouble’, hungry witches can be miserable. Prevent the children from gorging on sweets and chocolate, ensure they have had a hearty, warming, healthy meal before setting out on the Trick or Treat trail.
If you are out and about, driving during the ‘witching’ hours, keep your wits about you, remember the speed limits. It is important that you give yourself time to react should an excitable, hyper ghost step out in front of you.
12. Pets on alert
Remember that treasure accrued by your little monsters can be harmful to pets, as much as the family pet begs for treats, remember to not give them what the monsters have gathered, reminding the children not to give them to the animals.
Don’t forget whilst you are on the Trick or Treat trail remember that houses may have dogs behind the doors, always keep your wits about you.
13. Remember the Green Cross Code
Tip 13 speaks for itself, always encourage those witches and ghouls to follow their basic Green Cross Code when they are out on the trail.
Jack O’ Lanterns and Burn Advice
A Jack O’ Lantern is a carved pumpkin or turnip which is named after the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs called, Will-
How to make a Jack O’ Lantern
The process of making a Jack O’ Lantern is fairly straightforward, we thought that we would give you a quick how to guide.
1. Cut open the top of the pumpkin/turnip, keeping this part of the vegetable.
2. Scoop out the flesh, this can be used to make soup etc.
3. Carve out a spooky face or design into the side of the pumpkin, there are many templates available online, but most importantly, just have fun with it.
4. Place a light source inside – usually a lit candle.
5. Place the lid back on to the top of the pumpkin.
Cornish folklorist Dr Thomas Quiller Couch, who died in 1884, recorded the use of Jack O’ Lanterns in a rhyme which was used in Polperro, Cornwall, in conjunction with Joan the Wad, the Cornish version of Will-
‘Jack O’ the Lantern! Joan the Wad,
Who tickled the maid and made her mad,
Light me home, the weather’s bad.’
Jack O’ Lanterns are seen as a way of protecting homes against the undead. Superstitious people used them to ward away vampires, with the theory being that once the Jack O’ Lantern’s light has identified the vampire, they will give up the hunt for you as their identity is known.
In the modern world, during this time of year you can see many interesting, wacky, carved designs as well as the usual spooky face that is seen as traditional.
The hazard of Jack O’ Lanterns
3 years ago, in 2014, the risk associated with Jack O’ Lantern’s and Trick or Treating resulted in the sad story of Claudia Winkleman’s 8-
Claudia Winkleman told the BBC’s Watchdog programme, ‘We couldn’t put her out, her tights had melted into her skin’. Since the accident, Matilda has undergone several operations in order to treat her serious burns. Claudia Winkleman, directly after the accident and at the Halloween the following year, issued safety warnings to other parents.
Following, the accident, Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue service conducted an experiment with costumes that they had bought on the high street. They found that these commercially available costumes became engulfed in flames after only 9 seconds of exposure to a naked flame. Assistant County Fire Officer Geoff Harris said ‘The material these costumes are made of melts when it burns and it will stick to the skin causing horrific injuries’, advising parents to keep children’s costumes away from naked flames and use battery-
Matilda’s accident, whilst not wanting to remove any of the fun from this time of year, shows why parents and other important adults need to supervise children carefully when near Halloween decorations and Jack O’ Lanterns.
First Aid Advice for Burns
The National Fire Protection Service advice should a child’s costume/clothes catch fire is to:
The fire victim must stop what they are doing,
therefore ceasing any movement which may fan
the flames or hamper those attempting to extinguish the flames.
The child must drop to the floor,
lying down, if possible, covering their face
with their hands to avoid facial injury.
Now the child must roll around on the floor,
in an effort to extinguish the flames, and starve the fire of
oxygen. If the casualty is on a rug, they could roll the rug
around them in order to further extinguish the flames.
There are 3 simple steps to follow, once the flames have been extinguished, to start to treat the burn and help the casualty.
The most important thing to do at this stage is to
run the burn under cold running water for 10 minutes.
If the burn is only minor and small, should water be unavailable
other liquid could be used (e.g. milk) and then move the casualty to a tap.
After 10 minutes, remove the burn from the running water and check if the burn
has cooled or is still burning.
Repeat up to half an hour and call an ambulance.
Jump to step 3
Take care not to induce hypothermia if the burn is large, in children or the elderly.
While you are cooling the burn in the first
10 minutes, you will need to remove any
clothing or jewellery the casualty is wearing.
You will need to do this gently and carefully, before the area starts to swell.
Do Not remove anything that is stuck to the burn.
If clothing is stuck to the burn,
take clothes’ removers from the First Aid box, and then carefully cut
the clothing at least a centimetre from the perimeter of the stuck clothing.
If it is not possible to cut the clothing away,
leave the clothing in place and pour cold running water over the clothing.
Once the burn is cooled,
take a roll of cling film and remove the first 2 layers and dispose of these,
take the third layer and loosely dress the burn with it.
You can secure this with bandages if necessary,
placing cold wet towels over the top to keep the burn cool if necessary.
If concerned, or the burn is severe:
Call 999/112 and ask for an Ambulance.
We hope that you have a good time this Halloween, staying safe while on the Trick or Treat trail.
We also hope that those little monsters, witches and ghouls of yours enjoy their treasures and stay safe looking out for the vast array of Jack O’ Lanterns around to be seen and admired.
Remember, remember the Fifth of November,
The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,
I know of no reason
Why the Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.
Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, t'was his intent
To blow up the King and Parli'ment.
Poor old England to overthrow;
By God's providence he was catch'd
With a dark lantern and burning match.
Holloa boys, Holloa boys, let the bells ring.
Holloa boys, holloa boys, God save the King!
And what should we do with him? Burn him!
Bonfire night also known as Guy Fawkes Night is a celebration which originates from the Gunpowder Plot.
The Gunpowder Plot took place in 1605, when a provincial group of Catholics planned to assassinate King James I of England and the VI of Scotland.
The plan was to blow up the House of Lords at the State opening of Parliament on November the 5th. The plan was ahead of a popular revolt in the Midlands that intended to replace the King with his 9-
Who were the plotters against King James I?
The Gunpowder Plot was led by Robert Catesby. His co-
Sir Everard Digby and
The Gunpowder Plot was uncovered when a letter was sent anonymously to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle on the 26th October 1605. At about midnight on the 4th November 1605, a search of the Palace of Westminster took place, discovering Guy Fawkes under the House of Lords guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder. This amount of gunpowder would have reduced the House of Lords to rubble. The guards arrested Guy Fawkes. On hearing that their plot had been discovered most of the plotters fled London, several of the crew however, decided to make a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House. In the battle that ensued, Robert Catesby was one who was shot and killed.
King James I’s Council allowed people to celebrate the King’s survival with bonfires, providing that they were without any danger or disorder. You could say that this ruling still applies today and is one of the reasons why we celebrate Guy Fawkes Night in the way that we do currently. The Council’s decision made the first celebration of the failed plot in 1605.
In January 1606, days before the surviving conspirators were executed, the Government of the day passed the Observance of 5th November Act, which kept the 5th of November as a free day to remember the failed plot, with the intention of making attending Church mandatory with a new form of service being added to the Church of England’s Book of Common Prayer. This law however was repealed on the 25th March 1859 by the Anniversary Days Observance Act. This law was itself repealed as spent in the Statute Law Revision Act 1875.
Guy Fawkes Night in Popular Culture
The Gunpowder Plot has been referred to in many ways across popular culture, through literature, television, radio and verse.
Interestingly in a BBC poll, the public voted Guy Fawkes as the 30th greatest Briton out of 100, he was also included in the list of top 100 people from Yorkshire compiled by Bernard Ingham.
Guy Fawkes in Literature
We thought we would give just a few examples of where throwbacks to Guy Fawkes have appeared in recent literature.
In the Harry Potter series of books by J.K.Rowling, Dumbledore has a phoenix called Fawkes, which was named after Guy Fawkes. According to tradition, at the end of its life a phoenix burns.
In the novel Martin Chuzzlewit, it is said that a member of the Chuzzlewit family is unquestionably a member of the Gunpowder Plot. As well as Guy Fawkes himself being cut from the same stock as that of the family.
Guy Fawkes in Theatre
Here we have listed plays that have been in the theatre that portray or refer to Guy Fawkes and his fellow conspirators:
Harlequin and Guy Fawkes (16/11/1835),
Guido Fawkes (June 1840),
Match for a King (1855),
5/11 (August 2005),
Guy Fawkes in Music
There is one example of this plot being referenced in music which a song entitled Un-
Guy Fawkes in Radio
We thought that we would highlight how the plot still has importance today by highlighting how 400 years after the plot, BBC Radio 3 broadcast a radio play, The Gunpowder Plot, on the 6th November 2005.
Also, in 2005 Radio 4 broadcast 5 15-
1. The Pilgrim,
2. The Mother,
3. The Sister,
4. The Princess,
5. The Wife.
Guy Fawkes on Television
The Gunpowder Plot has been seen on television in many ways over the years, a few examples are:
Gunpowder, Treason and Plot (a 2004 miniseries),
Gunpowder 5/11: The Greatest Terror Plot (22/10/2004),
Sherlock episode entitled The Empty Hearse (1/01/2014),
Gunpowder (Oct and Nov 2017 3-
Modern day celebration
In Britain, on or around the 5th November has become the time to let off fireworks and hold bonfire parties, the tradition behind this is to celebrate the failure of the plot to assassinate the King.
Traditionally, children make ‘guys’ – effigies of Guy Fawkes, to place on the November 5th bonfire to be burnt once the fire is lit. Usually, the ‘guys’ are made of old clothing stuffed with newspaper, wearing grotesque masks. Traditionally, these ‘guys’ were paraded around the streets, in order to collect money for fireworks, this has become a less common custom through the years.
The use of the word guy was first started to be used to describe these effigies in the 19th Century to mean an oddly dressed person, and in the later centuries it has come to mean any man.
Throughout towns and cities around the country each year, public bonfire and firework displays are held around the 5th November to commemorate the Gunpowder Plot, in some areas for example, Sussex, there are great processions and bonfires organised by local bonfire societies.
Staying Safe this Guy Fawkes Night
Obviously, we want our readers to remain safe whilst having fun this 5th November; we thought it would be a good idea to remind you of the Fireworks Code. The code used to be emblazoned across our television in the run up to the festivities, however in recent years this is not the case.
The Code comes from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills of the Government and is as follows:
Only buy fireworks which are marked BS 7114.
Don’t drink alcohol if you are setting off fireworks.
Keep fireworks in a closed box.
Follow the instructions on each firework.
Light them at arm’s-
Stand well back.
NEVER return to a firework once lit. Even if it hasn’t gone off, it could still explode.
NEVER put fireworks in your pocket or throw them.
Always supervise children around fireworks.
Light sparklers one at a time and wear gloves.
Never give sparklers to children under 5.
Keep pets inside.
Don’t let off fireworks after 11pm.
I think you will agree that the firework code makes perfect sense, and is a good way of keeping safe when around fireworks, this firework season.
Further to all other fireworks, sparklers should be treated with extra care, especially when they have been given to children, which is generally the use for these fireworks, to entertain the children, and make pretty signs in the air.
Did You know?....
Sparklers can get 6 times as hot as a pan of hot cooking oil!
It is important to look after unlit and lit sparklers in a safe way, these simple rules should help to keep you and children safe this November.
Store sparklers and other fireworks in a closed box in a cool dry place.
Always light sparklers one at a time whilst wearing gloves.
Never hold a baby or a child if you have a sparkler in your hand.
Plunge finished sparklers into a bucket of water, hot end down as soon as they have finished,
sparklers can stay hot a VERY long time.
Don’t take sparklers to a public display, it will be too busy to use them safely.
Sparklers and Children
When supervising children with sparklers remember these key rules:
Never give sparklers to children under 5, they will not know how to use them safely.
Always supervise children closely with sparklers.
Give children gloves to wear while holding sparklers.
Avoid dressing children in loose or flowing clothes, they may catch light.
Show children how to hold a sparkler safely, arm’s-
Teach children not to wave them at other people.
Never let a child run while they are holding or near sparklers.
Let’s recap burn treatment, for more detailed burn treatment, click here to be taken to our Triduum of Allhallowtide blog where we talk in detail about burns.
1. Cool the burn with running water for 10 minutes,
2. Cut around any material which is stuck to the burn – Do NOT pull it off,
3. Do NOT touch the burn or pop any blisters,
4. Cover the burn once cold with a non-
5. If the clothing catches fire, get the child to Stop
If the burn is particularly large, on a child or elderly person, or you are worried, seek medical advice from your doctor, A&E or call 999/112 for an ambulance.
Even with all the advice provided, we obviously do not want to take the fun away from your bonfire night.
We hope that you, your children and family have a safe and fun Bonfire Night.
Did you know…?
There are an estimated 4.5 million people living in the UK with diabetes.
What Is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes Mellitus, usually known as diabetes is a disease in which the body’s ability to produce and respond to the hormone insulin is affected, and this results in the body’s metabolism of carbohydrates being abnormal and therefore elevates the levels of glucose in the bloodstream.
Key aspects of the body in Diabetes
The hormone insulin is produced in the pancreas.
The pancreas is a large gland that lies behind the stomach, at the back of the tummy area, about the same area as the base of the breastbone. The pancreas is about 15cm (6 inches) long, and is described as looking like a feather under a microscope. The other description of the pancreas is like a tadpole, and described as having a head, body and tail.
The head of the pancreas is next to the duodenum, with the body in the middle of the gland and the tail sitting next to the spleen.
Glucose in the blood is measured in Millimoles per litres of blood, and is abbreviated to mmol/L.
The Different Types of Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which causes the insulin creating beta cells in the pancreas to be destroyed, this prevents the body from being able to create enough insulin to adequately regulate the glucose levels in the blood.
Type 1 is often referred to as juvenile diabetes, although this term has started to be seen as obsolete, as although it is commonly diagnosed in children, the onset can be diagnosed at any age.
Another term used to describe diabetes is insulin dependent diabetes, because Type 1 Diabetes causes the loss of insulin production, and therefore it requires regular insulin administration either by injection, tablets or insulin pump.
Did you know…?
In the year 2000, the first cases of Type 2 Diabetes were diagnosed in overweight girls aged 9 to 16 years old.
Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, which results in hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body becoming insulin resistant and/or being unable to produce enough insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes is usually referred to as non-
Type 3 Diabetes is a newly found form of diabetes after a study completed in 2012. The term Type 3 is proposed for Alzheimer’s disease which results in resistance of insulin in the brain.
The research pinpoints resistance to insulin and insulin like growth as being a key part of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.
Gestational Diabetes occurs during pregnancy. It usually appears in the third trimester which is between 24 and 28 weeks and typically disappears after the baby is born. However, women who develop Gestational Diabetes are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes in later life.
Did you know…?
It is estimated that there are around 1,100,000
in the UK who have diabetes but are not diagnosed yet.
Living with Diabetes
Living with diabetes can be very challenging, however diabetic people should be able to lead a normal and full life. Diabetes can affect all aspects of life including:
Managing Blood Glucose Levels,
Getting a job,
Managing Blood Glucose Levels
Managing blood glucose levels, can be a challenge and can take over a person’s life, especially in the early stages following a diagnosis. Diabetic people will need to monitor their own glucose levels, using the finger prick test, insulin tables or by using an insulin pump.
About 1 in 1,000 people with diabetes wear an insulin pump. The pump is a portable device which is attached to the body that continuously delivers amounts of rapid or short-
Having diabetes does not result in someone not being able to drive, however, a diabetic person may need to inform the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) and their insurance company that they are diabetic.
If the condition is being managed by insulin, the DVLA must be informed, and in addition to this requirement, the DVLA must be informed of any diabetic complications that may affect the ability to drive safely. Should the DVLA and insurance not be informed of the diabetes the insurance may be invalid.
The DVLA do not need to be informed if:
Diabetes is being controlled by diet alone,
Treatment is by tablets that do not cause hypoglycaemia,
The DVLA has provided further information as to when someone with diabetes should not drive, however, we feel this is good advice for anyone who drives, as follows:
If the diabetic person has difficulty in recognising hypoglycaemia,
Has problems with eyesight which are not corrected by wearing glasses,
If there is weakness in the arms or limbs,
If the driver has been consuming alcohol.
Furthermore, the DVLA also says that if a driver drives for work and is unsure if their diabetes will affect their work, they should contact the DVLA and discuss this in detail with them.
Getting a job
Diabetes on its own should not prevent a diabetic person from getting a job. Anyone with diabetes should declare this at the application stage. There are certain jobs however that being an insulin user, legislation prevents people from applying from as follows:
Airline pilots and airline cabin crew,
Air traffic control,
Although not all roles within these sectors are restricted due to being an insulin user. Some of these roles are also exempt from the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.
Anyone living with diabetes can experience negative feelings which are entirely normal, these include:
According to the NHS, people with diabetes are more than twice as likely to suffer from depression.
Although people with diabetes should have no issue in going on their holidays and travels, they do need to prepare and plan for their holidays before they set off, thus ensuring that they have packed enough medication/insulin for their trip.
Using insulin abroad should not usually be a problem. Insulin should never be allowed to freeze, and therefore should be carried in the hand luggage. Also, diabetic people will need to remember that in warmer climes insulin can be absorbed quicker and therefore more careful monitoring of the blood glucose levels needs to take place.
Did you know…?
Up to 50% of men and up to 25% of women
may experience some kind of sexual problems
or a loss of sexual desire as a result of diabetes.
Diabetes can cause damage to the nervous system over a sustained period of time, this can lead to the potential for diabetes to cause damage to erectile tissue, leaving it impossible for a man to achieve or maintain an erection.
Did you know…?
1 in 3 men suffer from erectile dysfunction
Some diabetic women will suffer from vaginitis (the inflammation of the vagina), this can make sexual relations painful, and is heralded by itching and burning of the affected area.
Another recurrent problem for a diabetic woman is cystitis.
Like diabetic men, diabetic women can suffer from erectile dysfunction, and therefore the clitoris may not respond to stimulation.
Regardless, of whether you are a diabetic man or woman, there is a concern that a hypoglycaemic emergency may occur during sexual activities. Testing blood glucose levels before and after isn’t exactly going to create the right mood, and therefore isn’t something that the diabetic person would want to do, however it is much better to be honest about diabetes in the first place. If a partner is reassuring and understanding, then maybe a ‘keeper’ has been found.
What are the First Aid concerns of Diabetes?
Did you know…?
1 in 16 people in the UK have diabetes, whether or not they are diagnosed.
As a First Aider we are concerned with a diabetic casualty when they are either too high or too low in glucose in their blood. The 2 conditions that a First Aider will deal with are called:
How do these 2 words translate into English?
Hyper Over Hypo Under
Glyc Sugar Glyc Sugar
Aem(ia) blood Aem(ia) blood
The words hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia are latinized from the Greek language. Any word that has got the letters ‘aem’ included together has something to do with the blood.
Hypoglycaemia is usually caused when a diabetic person:
Misses or delays a meal,
Has taken too much medication (e.g. insulin or other hypo causing medications),
Drinks excess alcohol.
The main symptoms of hypoglycaemia are:
There are other symptoms as follows:
Higher heart rate than usual,
Loss of consciousness,
Coma (in extreme situations).
A hypoglycaemic event is a First Aid emergency and the First Aider on the scene should try to treat this immediately by providing the casualty with some sugar. Usually as little as 10g of sugar for a child will return the casualty’s blood sugar level to the safe zone, this figure rises to 20g for an adult.
So, what does 10 and 20g of sugar look like?
Glucose Quantity 10g (Child) 20g (Adult)
Sugar 2 tsp 4 tsp
Skittles 10 20
Jelly Babies 2 4
Fizzy Drink (not diet) 100ml 200ml
Fruit Juice 100ml 200ml
Lucozade 100ml 200ml Due to recipe change (2017)
If your casualty is starting to look like they are recovering and therefore their glucose levels are returning to the safe zone, you can of course provide them with some additional sugar to fully bring them to the safe zone.
Once they have returned to the safe zone you should, if possible, provide the casualty with a slow releasing carbohydrate, for example a banana sandwich or a bowl of cereal.
NEVER try to provide a casualty with something to eat or drink if they are unconscious or unable to swallow.
The underlying cause of Hyperglycaemia will usually be from the insulin producing cells in the pancreas or the body having developed a resistance to insulin.
The more immediate concerns are when the diabetic person:
Misses a dose of diabetic medication,
Contracts an infection,
Eats more carbohydrates than the body can cope with,
Is emotionally and/or mentally distressed.
The main symptoms of Hyperglycaemia are:
There are other symptoms as follows:
Loss of weight.
Hyperglycaemia can be a serious condition if the blood glucose levels stay high for an extended period as well as if the blood sugar levels rise to a dangerously high level which can lead to short term complications, for example ketoacidosis.
Did you know…
If the current trend continues by 2034:
1 in 3 people will be obese
1 in 10 will develop Type 2 Diabetes.
What is ketoacidosis?
Ketoacidosis is most commonly associated with Type 1 Diabetes, but can also be found in Type 2 Diabetes where the body only produces a small amount of its own insulin.
Ketoacidosis is a short-
Symptoms of Ketoacidosis:
On its own, ketoacidosis, can be a symptom of undiagnosed Type 1 Diabetes. The symptoms of ketoacidosis consist of:
Fruity smell of the breath (pear drops),
Ketoacidosis usually evolves over a 24-
As a First Aider, there is nothing directly that you can do for a casualty who is in a hyperglycaemic state, however, the treatment of a diabetic emergency is the same for First Aiders regardless of whether the casualty is in a hypo or hyperglycaemic emergency. This treatment is to provide the casualty with some sugar, and therefore raising the casualty’s blood glucose levels, this is particularly important in the short term, as it will help the First Aider to identify whether the casualty is hypoglycaemic and therefore, having returned to a more normal state, requires a slow releasing carbohydrate, or whether they are hyperglycaemic and therefore need the First Aider to contact the emergency services.
Did you know…?
The NHS spends approximately £10,000,000,000,
10% of the NHS budget on treating diabetes and its complications.
‘Fighting terrorism is like being a goalkeeper.
You can make a hundred brilliant saves but the only shot that
people remember is the one that gets past you.’
PAUL WILKINSON, September 1, 1992
With the launch this week of our specialist course relating to Extreme Situation First Aid, we thought we would take this opportunity to review the events on these shores over the last few months.
We have, like everyone else, been watching our screens in disbelief at the events that have happened in both Manchester and London. Our aim through this blog is to highlight what has happened, the advice given for these events and also look at the heart-
‘How do you defeat terrorism?
Don't be terrorized’
Current UK Terror Level
The Current UK terror warning level is:
What does this mean?
Severe means an attack is highly likely and we should be vigilant.
Are there any other levels of terror threat?
Yes, there are 5 levels of terror warning as follows:
An attack is unlikely.
An attack is possible but not likely.
An attack is a strong possibility.
An attack is expected imminently.
How long has the UK been at severe?
Since the 29th August 2014, the UK has had its terror warning at Severe, it was increased to Critical for 4 days in this period as we will discover through this blog.
Who sets the terror level and how?
The Independent Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC) sets the terror level, taking into account several aspects as follows:
Whilst we have said all of this about the terror levels and will go on to look at terror attacks that have occurred in the UK over the last year, it is important and vital that we say that these types of attacks are incredibly rare in the UK. Our intelligence services are incredibly good at what they do.
Amber Rudd MP and Home Secretary stated in April that the services had thwarted 12 terror attacks in the UK during the month of March alone.
Terrorism has no nationality or religion.
19th June 2016
I don’t think that we can start this blog anywhere else other than by going back a year ago to the 19th of June 2016, when
Jo Cox MP, Member of Parliament for Batley and Spen, was tragically murdered, in a far right terror attack.
On this day, Jo Cox was going to hold her constituency surgery which members of Parliament conduct, usually on a weekly basis,
where they meet members of the public and discuss the issues that they are facing, and if necessary the MP will then take on the
cause in the House of Commons to try to make a difference through their role in the House. Jo was nearing the venue of her
surgery when she was attacked and killed in a shooting and stabbing event.
Sadly, Jo Cox MP died in this attack.
Why was Jo Cox MP attacked?
The attack on Jo Cox came just 4 days before the Referendum on the United Kingdom’s continued membership of the European Union.
Jo was described as a passionate defender of the European Union and immigration, as well as reportedly being described by her attacker
as ‘one of the collaborators and a traitor to white people’.
In the direct aftermath of her death, it was agreed that campaigning in the EU referendum would continue and terrorism would not be allowed to disrupt our democracy.
Through the sad news of the passing of somebody going about their everyday life and job, there was news of have-
For his bravery, Bernard Carter-
‘Terrorism is a significant threat to peace and security,
prosperity and people.’
22nd March 2017
The first terror attack of 2017 in the UK took place on Westminster Bridge and in the vicinity of The Palace of Westminster more commonly known as The Houses of Parliament.
At approximately 14:40 on the afternoon of the 22nd March 2017, a grey Hyundai Tucson was driven along the pavement of the south side of Westminster Bridge at speeds of up to 76mph, causing many injuries and several deaths.
The second stage of this attack, involved the terrorist crashing the car into the perimeter wall of the Houses of Parliament and then running through the open Carriage Gates where he then fatally stabbed an unarmed Police Officer, PC Keith Palmer, before being shot himself and the attack coming to a close.
The whole attack from start to finish lasted a grand total of 82 seconds!
We have thought carefully throughout this blog as to whether to name the attackers in each of the attacks, and we have decided that we will not do this, moreover to remember the people who deserve to be remembered, namely the victims.
Having made the comment regarding the attacker, we do have to say however that following being shot by an armed Police Officer inside the grounds of the Palace of Westminster, attempts to revive him were not successful and he died at the scene.
You can view the list of victims here. (please note attacker is not named)
A total of 47 people were injured in this attack on top of those who died.
PC Keith Palmer
PC Keith Palmer, is probably the most famous name to come from this terror attack, he was on duty at Carriage Gates on the day of the attack. He was an unarmed Police Officer who had joined the Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection Group of the Metropolitan Police Service in April 2016, guarding the Houses of Parliament.
On the day of the attack, although he was killed, he was killed in the line of duty preventing the attacker from entering the Palace of Westminster, and therefore potentially saving the lives of many more people including MPs and civil service workers.
PC Keith Palmer was awarded a posthumous George Medal in Her Majesty’s Birthday Honours List 2017, announced on the 16th June 2017.
The George Medal is awarded for acts of great bravery, and its original warrant didn’t allow it to be awarded posthumously, this however changed in December 1977.
‘Our values and way of life will prevail –
terrorism will not.’
22nd May 2017
On the evening of the 22nd May 2017, over 14,000 people were enjoying a music concert by US music star, Ariana Grande, at the Manchester Arena.
Just after half past ten that evening, Miss Grande had finished her set and the delighted crowd were exiting the arena, making their way home after seeing their (or their daughters’) idol perform her hits, or waiting in the foyer for their excited children to meet them after the concert.
At 10:31, a suicide bomber, detonated his suicide vest, spewing shrapnel into the foyer area, hitting many people as far away as 20 metres from him when he detonated the bomb.
The Manchester Arena terror attack is the deadliest attack on our shores since the events of 7/7, killing 22 people, 10 of which were under the age of 20, and the youngest being 8-
You can view the full list of victims here. (Again, excluding the attacker)
The initial reported number of injured people was 119, this was upgraded on the 22nd June 2017 to some 250 injured people.
Following this attack in Manchester, JTAC raised the UK terror threat level from Severe up to its highest level of Critical on the 23rd May 2017 until the 27th May 2017, invoking Operation Temperer, which meant members of the armed forces took over guarding duty of places like the Palace of Westminster and Buckingham Palace, freeing up armed police officers to patrol the streets of the UK.
Some people found the appearance of more armed officers on the streets disturbing, but the idea behind this was to ensure people felt safe to go about their everyday business.
This was the first time that Operation Temperer had actually been put into action.
Who is Ariana Grande?
Ariana Grande is a 23-
She has released 3 full length albums, and all 3 have been certified by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA),
and has a huge following on social media, her Twitter account has over 45 million followers, making it the 17th most followed
account, she is the 2nd most followed person on Instagram with over 110 million followers. Her Facebook account has over
30 million followers.
Ariana’s Response to the Attack
On the 23rd May 2017 at 3:51AM, Ariana tweeted:
from the bottom of my heart, i am so so sorry. i don't have words.
Ariana postponed her Dangerous Woman tour and flew back home to her mother, the move of going home courted criticism of her primarily by Piers Morgan who publically said that he felt she should have stayed in the UK to visit the victims in hospital, something which Ariana did later. From our point of view, it must have been incredibly difficult for Ariana at the time, as it was her fans that had been targeted, it was her concert and let’s not forget that she was only 23 at the time.
It was said (by Scooter Braun at the One Love Manchester Concert) that while in America, Ariana contacted her manager, Scooter, and said:
If we do nothing…
I can’t live with that
We must do something’
And that is exactly what Ariana Grande did, she did something.
One Love Manchester
On the 26th May 2017, Ariana Grande announced that she would be hosting a benefit concert in Manchester on June 4th 2017. This is the something that she had referred to in her conversation with her manager Scooter Braun.
The concert took place on June the 4th 2017, at Old Trafford Cricket Ground.
Ariana planned, hosted and headlined the concert.
Anyone who had attended her original Manchester concert could apply for free tickets to the concert, and the paid tickets were charged at £40.00 with no booking fee and sold out in 6 minutes.
The stars of the show donated their time to the concert, and others who couldn’t attend sent video messages of support to the concert and the crowd via video messages. Proceeds from the concert went to the We Love Manchester Emergency Fund.
The concert was broadcast live on the BBC and across the world’s television channels as well as across radio stations.
It was critically acclaimed and is the most requested programme on the BBC iPlayer hitting over 1 million, surpassing the 2012 Olympics Opening Ceremony.
Ariana’s performances were tinged with emotion, but she conducted an excellent show, and the credit really has to go to her for putting on such an amazing show in such circumstances. Even Piers Morgan, who you will remember criticised her in the direct aftermath of the tragedy, lauded Ariana during the concert by tweeting:
Finally, on the Manchester Attack….
It also has been reported that Ariana Grande has offered to pay the funeral costs for all of the 22 victims of the attack. Moreover, she visited the injured in the hospital, a few days before the One Love Manchester, joining her name with that of Theresa May PM and the Queen who made visits to the injured in hospital.
We mustn’t forget to mention the shrine that St Ann’s Square became with millions of floral tributes, balloons and soft toys in memory of the 22 who died.
‘There is no priority higher
than the prevention of terrorism.’
3rd June 2017
Just as the country was catching its breath, following the atrocious attack on Manchester, terror once again reigned on the streets of our capital city.
At 10:05pm, a white Renault van was driven at speed heading south on the pavement of London Bridge, killing 3 and injuring many more. The attack then continued on foot after the van had crashed, heading into Borough Market where they proceeded to kill 5 people and injure many more. Members of the public were trying to protect themselves and others by throwing crates, bottles, chairs and other projectiles at the attackers in an attempt to ward them off.
The attackers were carrying knives to stab and cut their victims and wearing what turned out to be fake bomb vests.
The whole attack lasted 8 minutes, as the attackers, of which there were 3, were shot dead by the police on their arrival.
You can view the victims here. (As always excluding the attackers!)
During this attack 48 people were injured.
‘Terrorism is you winning hearts
and minds of people.’
19th June 2017
And so, we arrive at the most recent terror attack on these shores, and we find that it is an attack of the same ilk that we began with, from the far right.
A van was driven into a crowd of people on Seven Sisters Road shortly after tarawih (night time prayers held in the month of Ramadan). This injured 10 people who were giving First Aid at the time to another man who died, Makram Ali.
Like the first attack we have discussed in this blog, the attacker survived and is in the custody of the police who will follow the judicial process to bring this far right activist to justice for his crimes.
‘We must fight terrorism as if there's no peace process and work to achieve peace as if there's no terror.’
So, what should I do should I be in such circumstances?
The current advice from the National Police Chiefs Council (NPCC) that should you be in a situation where there has been a:
Other deliberate incident is to
Run Hide Tell.
What does this mean in practice?
To a place of safety.
This is a much better option than trying to fight with the attacker and/or try to negotiate.
If you are unable to run then…
It’s better to hide than to try to confront.
Remember to turn your phone off or on to silent, remember to turn off vibrate too!
Barricade yourself in if you can.
Then finally AND only when it is safe to do so…
Tell the Emergency Services (Police) by calling 999.
If your mobile telephone has been registered you can even text the emergency services to inform them of an emergency.
We dedicate this blog to all the victims who lost their lives in these terrorist attacks and to all those who were injured.
Want to know more information, then why not visit our dedicated Extreme Situation First Aid page?